urinary system

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1

Which is not a major function of the kidney?

a) regulation of blood ionic composition

b) regulation of blood cell size

c) regulation of blood volume

d) regulation of blood pressure

e) regulation of blood pH

b

2

This is the formation of a new glucose molecule.

a) glycolysis

b) gluconeogenesis

c) glucosamine

d) glucose

e) calcitriol

b

3

Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?

a) urea

b) glucose

c) insulin

d) cholesterol

e) carbon dioxide

a

4

The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the

a) renal columns

b) renal medulla

c) renal pelvis

d) calyces

e) renal papilla

a

5

Which is the correct order of blood flow through the kidneys?

a) renal artery > segmental artery > interlobular artery > peritubular capillaries > afferent

arterioles

b) interlobar arteries > arcuate arteries > glomerular capillaries > arcuate veins

c) arcuate veins > arcuate arteries > glomerular capillaries > renal vein

d) renal vein > segmental arteries > interlobar arteries > efferent arterioles

e) interlobar veins > afferent arterioles > efferent arterioles > glomerular capillaries

b

6

Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?

a) glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), loop of Henle, distal convoluted

tubule (DCT), collecting duct

b) loop of Henle, glomerular capsule, PCT, DCT, collecting duct

c) ascending limb of loop, PCT, DCT, collecting duct

d) collecting duct, DCT, PCT, collecting duct, glomerular capsule

e) PCT, glomerular capsule, DCT, collecting duct, loop of Henle

a

7

Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?

a) glomerular capsule

b) loop of Henle

c) ascending limb

d) collecting duct

e) proximal convoluted tubule

e

8

This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood.

a) glomerular capsule

b) loop of Henle

c) ascending limb

d) collecting duct

e) renal corpuscle

a

9

This term means the return of substances into the blood stream from the filtrate.

a) reabsorption

b) filtration

c) secretion

d) excretion

e) none of these choices

a

10

This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate.

a) reabsorption

b) filtration

c) secretion

d) excretion

e) none of these choices

c

11

This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix.

a) glomerular endothelial cells

b) basal lamina

c) pedicels

d) filtration slits

e) slit membrane

b

12

This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles.

a) glomerular filtration rate

b) tubulomerular feedback

c) myogenic mechanism

d) renal autoregulation

e) capsular hydrostatic pressure

c

13

This occurs when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane, across the cytosol, and then into the interstitial fluid.

a) paracellular reabsoprtion

b) transcellular reabsoprtion

c) apical reasborption

d) basolateral reabsorption

e) active transport

b

14

The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb which percentage of filtered water?

a) 25%

b) 50%

c) 65%

d) 80%

e) 99%

c

15

Which of the following is NOT a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?

a) It increases GFR

b) It can decrease GFR

c) It enhances reabsorption of certain ions

d) It stimulates the release of aldosterone

e) None of these choices

a

16

Urea recycling can cause a buildup of urea in the

a) renal capsule

b) loop of Henle

c) ascending tubule

d) renal medulla

e) renal pelvis

d

17

Increased secretion of hydrogen ions would result in a ______________ of blood

____________?

a) increase, pressure

b) decrease, volume

c) increase, sodium levels

d) decrease, pH

e) increase, urea

d

18

Increased secretion of aldosterone would result in a ______________ of blood

____________?

a) increase, potassium

b) decrease, volume

c) increase, calcium levels

d) decrease, pH

e) increase, sodium

e

19

An analysis of the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine is called

a) urinalysis

b) filtration study

c) concentration study

d) diuretic

e) osmolarity

a

20

Water accounts for which percentage of the total volume of urine?

a) 25%

b) 50%

c) 75%

d) 80%

e) 95%

e

21

This is a test to measure kidney function.

a) Plasma creatinine

b) Renal study

c) Kidney assay

d) Dialysis

e) Hilus study

a

22

This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder.

a) Urethra

b) Ureter

c) Descending loop of Henle

d) Renal hilus

e) None of these choices

b

23

This lies in the anterior corner of the trigone of the bladder.

a) Urethral sphincter

b) Adventitia bundle

c) Ureter

d) Internal urethral orifice

e) Muscularis bundle

d

24

Anorexia, starvation, or a diet too low in carbohydrates indicates which condition?

a) albuminuria

b) glucosuria

c) urobilinogenuria

d) ketonuria

e) bilirubinuria

d

25

Stress, causing excessive amounts of epinephrine secretion which stimulates glycogen breakdown, indicates which condition? This condition can also indicate diabetes mellitus.

a) albuminuria

b) glucosuria

c) urobilinogenuria

d) hematuria

e) bilirubinuria

b

26

An increase in permeability of the filtration membrane due to disease, injury, or irritation of kidney cells by substances such as bacterial toxins, ether, or heavy metals indicates which condition?

a) albuminuria

b) lucosuria

c) robilinogenuria

d) ketonuria

e) bilirubinuria

a

27

Excessive urine concentration of a normal breakdown product of hemoglobin, caused by pernicious anemia, infectious hepatitis, jaundice or cirrhosis, indicates which condition?

a) albuminuria

b) glucosuria

c) urobilinogenuria

d) hematuria

e) bilirubinuria

c

28

This substance gives bile its major pigmentation:

a) ketone bodies

b) erythrocytes

c) casts

d) bilirubin

e) glucose

d

29

These are tiny masses of material, hardened in the lumen of the urinary tubule and are flushed out when filtrate builds up behind them:

a) ketone bodies

b) erythrocytes

c) casts

d) microbes

e) urobilinogen

c

30

Candida albicans and E. coli are which type of abnormal constituent of urine:

a) ketone bodies

b) erythrocytes

c) casts

d) microbes

e) urobilinogen

d

31

Which is the normal pH range of urine in humans?

a) 8.1 – 10.6

b) 4.6 – 8.0

c) 1.0 – 3.0

d) 3.1 – 4.0

e) 10.0 – 12.0

b

32

What is the normal volume of urine produced in humans?

a) 1L / hr

b) 2L / day

c) 2L / hr

d) 3L / week

e) 10L / 24 hours

b

33

Parasympathetic division of ANS regulates kidney functions.

false

34

This hormone is released when the blood volume increases.

a) Parathyroid Hormone

b) Renin

c) ADH

d) Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

e) Aldosterone

d

35

Consumption of salty food will cause an increase in this hormone.

a) Aldosterone

b) Renin

c) ANH

d) Angiotensin-II

e) ADH

e

36

Absence of angiotensin converting enzyme will lead to

a) decreased blood pressure

b) increased blood pressure

c) will not have any effect on blood pressure

d) All of these choices

e) None of these choices

a