Campbell Biology 18.1 & 18.2

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1

The role of a metabolite that controls a repressible operon is to

A) bind to the promoter region and decrease the affinity of RNA polymerase for the promoter.
B) bind to the operator region and block the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter.
C) increase the production of inactive repressor proteins.
D) bind to the repressor protein and inactivate it.
E) bind to the repressor protein and activate it.

E

2

The tryptophan operon is a repressible operon that is

A) permanently turned on.
B) turned on only when tryptophan is present in the growth medium.
C) turned off only when glucose is present in the growth medium.
D) turned on only when glucose is present in the growth medium.
E) turned off whenever tryptophan is added to the growth medium.

E

3

Which of the following is a protein produced by a regulatory gene?

A) operon
B) inducer
C) promoter
D) repressor
E) corepressor

D

4

A lack of which molecule would result in the cell's inability to "turn off" genes?

A) operon
B) inducer
C) promoter
D) ubiquitin
E) corepressor

E

5

Which of the following, when taken up by the cell, binds to the repressor so that the repressor no longer binds to the operator?

A) ubiquitin
B) inducer
C) promoter
D) repressor
E) corepressor

B

6

Most repressor proteins are allosteric. Which of the following binds with the repressor to alter its conformation?

A) inducer
B) promoter
C) RNA polymerase
D) transcription factor
E) cAMP

A

7

A mutation that inactivates the regulatory gene of a repressible operon in an E. coli cell would result in

A) continuous transcription of the structural gene controlled by that regulator.
B) complete inhibition of transcription of the structural gene controlled by that regulator.
C) irreversible binding of the repressor to the operator.
D) inactivation of RNA polymerase by alteration of its active site.
E) continuous translation of the mRNA because of alteration of its structure.

A

8

The lactose operon is likely to be transcribed when

A) there is more glucose in the cell than lactose.
B) the cyclic AMP levels are low.
C) there is glucose but no lactose in the cell.
D) the cyclic AMP and lactose levels are both high within the cell.
E) the cAMP level is high and the lactose level is low.

D

9

Transcription of the structural genes in an inducible operon

A) occurs continuously in the cell.
B) starts when the pathway's substrate is present.
C) starts when the pathway's product is present.
D) stops when the pathway's product is present.
E) does not result in the production of enzymes.

B

10

For a repressible operon to be transcribed, which of the following must occur?

A) A corepressor must be present.
B) RNA polymerase and the active repressor must be present.
C) RNA polymerase must bind to the promoter, and the repressor must be inactive.
D) RNA polymerase cannot be present, and the repressor must be inactive.
E) RNA polymerase must not occupy the promoter, and the repressor must be inactive.

C

11

Allolactose, an isomer of lactose, is formed in small amounts from lactose. An E. coli cell is presented for the first time with the sugar lactose (containing allolactose) as a potential food source. Which of the following occurs when the lactose enters the cell?

A) The repressor protein attaches to the regulator.
B) Allolactose binds to the repressor protein.
C) Allolactose binds to the regulator gene.
D) The repressor protein and allolactose bind to RNA polymerase.
E) RNA polymerase attaches to the regulator.

B

12

Altering patterns of gene expression in prokaryotes would most likely serve the organism's survival in which of the following ways?

A) organizing gene expression so that genes are expressed in a given order
B) allowing each gene to be expressed an equal number of times
C) allowing the organism to adjust to changes in environmental conditions
D) allowing young organisms to respond differently from more mature organisms
E) allowing environmental changes to alter the prokaryote's genome

C

13

In response to chemical signals, prokaryotes can do which of the following?

A) turn off translation of their mRNA
B) alter the level of production of various enzymes
C) increase the number and responsiveness of their ribosomes
D) inactivate their mRNA molecules
E) alter the sequence of amino acids in certain proteins

B

14

If glucose is available in the environment of E. coli, the cell responds with a very low concentration of cAMP. When the cAMP increases in concentration, it binds to CAP. Which of the following would you expect to be a measurable effect?

A) decreased concentration of the lac enzymes
B) increased concentration of the trp enzymes
C) decreased binding of the RNA polymerase to sugar metabolism-related promoters
D) decreased concentration of alternative sugars in the cell
E) increased concentrations of sugars such as arabinose in the cell

E

15

In positive control of several sugar-metabolism-related operons, the catabolite activator protein (CAP) binds to DNA to stimulate transcription. What causes an increase in CAP?

A) increase in glucose and increase in cAMP
B) decrease in glucose and increase in cAMP
C) increase in glucose and decrease in cAMP
D) decrease in glucose and increase in repressor
E) decrease in glucose and decrease in repressor

B

16

A mutation in this section of DNA could influence the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA:

A) operon
B) inducer
C) promoter
D) repressor
E) corepressor

C

17

What does the operon model attempt to explain?

A) the coordinated control of gene expression in bacteria
B) bacterial resistance to antibiotics
C) how genes move between homologous regions of DNA
D) the mechanism of viral attachment to a host cell
E) horizontal transmission of plant viruses

A

18

If an experimenter moves the promoter for the lac operon to the region between the beta galactosidase gene and the permease gene, which of the following would be likely?

A) Three structural genes will no longer be expressed.
B) RNA polymerase will no longer transcribe permease.
C) The operon will no longer be inducible.
D) Beta galactosidase will be produced.
E) The cell will continue to metabolize but more slowly.

D

19

If an experimenter moves the operator to the far end of the operon (past the transacetylase gene), which of the following would likely occur when the cell is exposed to lactose?

A) The inducer will no longer bind to the repressor.
B) The repressor will no longer bind to the operator.
C) The operon will never be transcribed.
D) The structural genes will be transcribed continuously.
E) The repressor protein will no longer be produced.

D

20

If an experimenter moves the repressor gene (lac I), along with its promoter, to a position at some several thousand base pairs away from its normal position, which will you expect to occur?

A) The repressor will no longer be made.
B) The repressor will no longer bind to the operator.
C) The repressor will no longer bind to the inducer.
D) The lac operon will be expressed continuously.
E) The lac operon will function normally.

E

21

If an experimenter moves the operator to a position upstream from the promoter, what would occur?

A) The lac operon will function normally.
B) The lac operon will be expressed continuously.
C) The repressor will not be able to bind to the operator.
D) The repressor will bind to the promoter.
E) The repressor will no longer be made.

B

22

Which of the following is a likely explanation for the lack of transgene expression in the fifth cell line?

A) A transgene integrated into a heterochromatic region of the genome.
B) A transgene integrated into a euchromatic region of the genome.
C) The transgene was mutated during the process of integration into the host cell genome.
D) The host cell lacks the enzymes necessary to express the transgene.
E) A transgene integrated into a region of the genome characterized by high histone acetylation.

A

23

In one set of experiments using this procedure in Drosophila, she was readily successful in increasing phosphorylation of amino acids adjacent to methylated amino acids in histone tails. Which of the following results would she most likely see?

A) increased chromatin condensation
B) decreased chromatin condensation
C) abnormalities of mouse embryos
D) decreased binding of transcription factors
E) inactivation of the selected genes

B

24

In one set of experiments she succeeded in decreasing methylation of histone tails. Which of the following results would she most likely see?

A) increased chromatin condensation
B) decreased chromatin condensation
C) abnormalities of mouse embryos
D) decreased binding of transcription factors
E) inactivation of the selected genes

A

25

She tried decreasing the amount of methylation enzymes in the embryonic stem cells and then allowed the cells to further differentiate. Which of the following results would she most likely see?

A) increased chromatin condensation
B) decreased chromatin condensation
C) abnormalities of mouse embryos
D) decreased binding of transcription factors
E) inactivation of the selected genes

C

26

Muscle cells differ from nerve cells mainly because they
A) express different genes.
B) contain different genes.
C) use different genetic codes.
D) have unique ribosomes.
E) have different chromosomes.

A

27

Which of the following mechanisms is (are) used to coordinate the expression of multiple, related genes in eukaryotic cells?

A) Genes are organized into clusters, with local chromatin structures influencing the expression of all the genes at once.
B) The genes share a common intragenic sequence, and allow several activators to turn on their transcription, regardless of location.
C) The genes are organized into large operons, allowing them to be transcribed as a single unit.
D) A single repressor is able to turn off several related genes.
E) Environmental signals enter the cell and bind directly to promoters.

A

28

If you were to observe the activity of methylated DNA, you would expect it to

A) be replicating nearly continuously.
B) be unwinding in preparation for protein synthesis.
C) have turned off or slowed down the process of transcription.
D) be very actively transcribed and translated.
E) induce protein synthesis by not allowing repressors to bind to it.

C

29

Genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation are all examples of

A) genetic mutation.
B) chromosomal rearrangements.
C) karyotypes.
D) epigenetic phenomena.
E) translocation.

D

30

Two potential devices that eukaryotic cells use to regulate transcription are

A) DNA methylation and histone amplification.
B) DNA amplification and histone methylation.
C) DNA acetylation and methylation.
D) DNA methylation and histone modification.
E) histone amplification and DNA acetylation.

D

31

In eukaryotes, general transcription factors

A) are required for the expression of specific protein-encoding genes.
B) bind to other proteins or to a sequence element within the promoter called the TATA box.
C) inhibit RNA polymerase binding to the promoter and begin transcribing.
D) usually lead to a high level of transcription even without additional specific transcription factors.
E) bind to sequences just after the start site of transcription.

B

32

Of the lines that express the transgene, one is transcribed but not translated. Which of the following is a likely explanation?

A) no promoter
B) no AUG in any frame
C) no compatible ribosome
D) high histone acetylation
E) missing transcription factor

B

33

During DNA replication

A) all methylation of the DNA is lost at the first round of replication.
B) DNA polymerase is blocked by methyl groups, and methylated regions of the genome are therefore left uncopied.
C) methylation of the DNA is maintained because methylation enzymes act at DNA sites where one strand is already methylated and thus correctly methylates daughter strands after replication.
D) methylation of the DNA is maintained because DNA polymerase directly incorporates methylated nucleotides into the new strand opposite any methylated nucleotides in the template.
E) methylated DNA is copied in the cytoplasm, and unmethylated DNA is copied in the nucleus.

C

34

This binds to a site in the DNA far from the promoter to stimulate transcription:

A) enhancer
B) promoter
C) activator
D) repressor
E) terminator

C

35

This can inhibit transcription by blocking the binding of positively acting transcription factors to the DNA:

A) enhancer
B) promoter
C) activator
D) repressor
E) terminatorD

D

36

Steroid hormones produce their effects in cells by

A) activating key enzymes in metabolic pathways.
B) activating translation of certain mRNAs.
C) promoting the degradation of specific mRNAs.
D) binding to intracellular receptors and promoting transcription of specific genes.
E) promoting the formation of looped domains in certain regions of DNA.

D

37

Transcription factors in eukaryotes usually have DNA binding domains as well as other domains that are also specific for binding. In general, which of the following would you expect many of them to be able to bind?

A) repressors
B) ATP
C) protein-based hormones
D) other transcription factors
E) tRNA

D

38

Gene expression might be altered at the level of post-transcriptional processing in eukaryotes rather than prokaryotes because of which of the following?

A) Eukaryotic mRNAs get 5' caps and 3' tails.
B) Prokaryotic genes are expressed as mRNA, which is more stable in the cell.
C) Eukaryotic exons may be spliced in alternative patterns.
D) Prokaryotes use ribosomes of different structure and size.
E) Eukaryotic coded polypeptides often require cleaving of signal sequences before localization.

C

39

Which of the following experimental procedures is most likely to hasten mRNA degradation in a eukaryotic cell?

A) enzymatic shortening of the poly-A tail
B) removal of the 5' cap
C) methylation of C nucleotides
D) methylation of histones
E) removal of one or more exons

B

40

Which of the following is most likely to have a small protein called ubiquitin attached to it?

A) a cyclin that usually acts in G₁, now that the cell is in G₂
B) a cell surface protein that requires transport from the ER
C) an mRNA that is leaving the nucleus to be translated
D) a regulatory protein that requires sugar residues to be attached
E) an mRNA produced by an egg cell that will be retained until after fertilization

A

41

The phenomenon in which RNA molecules in a cell are destroyed if they have a sequence complementary to an introduced double-stranded RNA is called

A) RNA interference.
B) RNA obstruction.
C) RNA blocking.
D) RNA targeting.
E) RNA disposal

A