Practice Test Flashcards


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1

Griffith's experiments with S. pneumoniae were significant because they showed that traits could be transferred from one organism to another. What else did he find that was significant?

Heat kills bacteria.
A virus made the bacteria pathogenic.
Protein could not be the genetic material.
The transferred traits were heritable.
DNA was the genetic material.

Heat kills bacteria.
A virus made the bacteria pathogenic.
Protein could not be the genetic material.
The transferred traits were heritable.
DNA was the genetic material.

2

In the Hershey and Chase experiment that helped confirm that DNA, not protein, was the hereditary material, what was the key finding?

Radioactively labeled sulfur was present inside the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled phosphorus was found outside of the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled carbon was present inside the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled sulfur was found outside of the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled phosphorus was present inside the infected bacteria.

Radioactively labeled sulfur was present inside the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled phosphorus was found outside of the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled carbon was present inside the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled sulfur was found outside of the infected bacteria.
Radioactively labeled phosphorus was present inside the infected bacteria.

3

In his transformation experiments, what phenomenon did Griffith observe?

Mixing a heat-killed nonpathogenic strain of bacteria with a living pathogenic strain makes the pathogenic strain nonpathogenic.
Infecting mice with nonpathogenic strains of bacteria makes them resistant to pathogenic strains.
Mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.
Mice infected with a pathogenic strain of bacteria can spread the infection to other mice.

Mixing a heat-killed nonpathogenic strain of bacteria with a living pathogenic strain makes the pathogenic strain nonpathogenic.
Infecting mice with nonpathogenic strains of bacteria makes them resistant to pathogenic strains.
Mixing a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can convert some of the living cells into the pathogenic form.
Mice infected with a pathogenic strain of bacteria can spread the infection to other mice.

4

Which of the following statements describes the process of transformation in bacteria?

A strand of DNA is created from an RNA molecule.
Bacterial cells are infected by a phage DNA molecule.
External DNA is taken into a cell, becoming part of the cell's genome.
A strand of RNA is created from a DNA molecule.

A strand of DNA is created from an RNA molecule.
Bacterial cells are infected by a phage DNA molecule.
External DNA is taken into a cell, becoming part of the cell's genome.
A strand of RNA is created from a DNA molecule.

5

It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule could carry a vast amount of hereditary information. Which of the following characteristics of DNA is responsible for this?

side groups of nitrogenous bases
sequence of bases
complementary pairing of bases
phosphate-sugar backbones

side groups of nitrogenous bases
sequence of bases
complementary pairing of bases
phosphate-sugar backbones

6

In the polymerization of DNA, a phosphodiester bond is formed between a phosphate group of the nucleotide being added and which of the following atoms or molecules of the last nucleotide in the polymer?

the 3' OH
the 5' phosphate
a nitrogen from the nitrogen-containing base
C6

the 3' OH
the 5' phosphate
a nitrogen from the nitrogen-containing base
C6

7

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

Helicase

8

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction.
Since DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction, the new strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strand must be assembled either in short 5' to 3' segments, which are later joined together by ligase, or be assembled continuously.

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction.

Since DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction, the new strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strand must be assembled either in short 5' to 3' segments, which are later joined together by ligase, or be assembled continuously.

9

What materials does DNA polymerase require in order to synthesize a complete strand of DNA?

3'-OH end of the new DNA strand
All four deoxyribonucleotides triphosphates (containing A, C, T, or G)
ATP
Single-stranded DNA template
Inorganic phosphate

3'-OH end of the new DNA strand
All four deoxyribonucleotides triphosphates (containing A, C, T, or G)
ATP
Single-stranded DNA template
Inorganic phosphate

10

Nucleotide excision repair

a section of DNA containing the damage is removed, and the gap is then filled in and completed by DNA polymerase and DNA ligase.

11

In E. coli, which enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction?

In E. coli, which enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction?
DNA ligase
helicase
DNA polymerase III
primase

In E. coli, which enzyme catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction?
DNA ligase
helicase
DNA polymerase III
primase

12

What is the function of DNA polymerase III?

To add nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing DNA strand

13

A white-eyed female Drosophila is crossed with a red-eyed male Drosophila. Which statement below correctly describes the results?

None of the females will have white eyes.

14

Which of the following statements correctly describes the meaning of the chromosome theory of inheritance as expressed in the early 20th century?

Mendelian genes are at specific loci on the chromosome and, in turn, segregate during meiosis.

15

In cats, black fur color is determined by an X-linked allele; the other allele at this locus determines orange color. The heterozygote is tortoiseshell. What kinds of offspring would you expect from the cross of a black female and an orange male?

orange females; black males
tortoiseshell females; tortoiseshell males
black females; orange males
tortoiseshell females; black males

orange females; black males
tortoiseshell females; tortoiseshell males
black females; orange males
tortoiseshell females; black males

16

Which of the following statements regarding gene linkage is correct?

The closer two genes are on a chromosome, the lower the probability that a crossover will occur between them.

17

What does a recombination frequency of 50% indicate?What does a recombination frequency of 50% indicate?

The two genes are likely to be located on different chromosomes.