Psychology Chapter 12

Helpfulness: 0
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1

​Mischa believes she did well on her English exam because she is very intelligent but that she failed her Chemistry exam because her instructor is not very good. We may explain her beliefs in terms of

-self-serving bias

2

In groupthink, the decision is ____ than ____.

-less important; reaching agreement

3

​In order for intergroup contact to have a desirable effect on prejudice and intergroup tension, all but which of the following conditions are necessary?

-members with high levels of empathy

4

​All of the following make attitudes more likely to influence behavior EXCEPT

-situational attributions

5

Regarding influences on helping, which of the following statements is FALSE?

-The presence of others increases the likelihood that someone will choose to help

6

The self-defense explanation of a crime essentially involves convincing the jury to make what sort of attribution about the defendant’s actions?

-situational

7

Attitudes may be described as comprising which components?

-emotions, behaviors, and cognitions

8

The research area of psychology that studies how people interact with one another is:

-social psychology

9

​Jamal is in a situation where another person needs help. According to the bystander intervention model, Jamal’s first step will be

-recognizing a need for help

10

A commanding officer gives a soldier an order that he knows the soldier would rather not obey. According to the findings of the Milgram obedience experiments, what should the officer do to increase the likelihood of obedience?

-Stay in the presence of the soldier until the order has been obeyed

11

​If I look for the causes of your behavior in your disposition and personality traits, and overlook how the situation influenced your behavior, I am guilty of the ____.

-fundamental attribution error

12

A salesperson used a persuasive technique that was not based on the principle of compliance. Which technique was used?

-switch-and-pay

13

​Which researcher conducted an influential study on conformity?

-Asch

14

​Of the following people with attitudes toward hybrid vehicles, which one best describes the behavioral component of attitudes?

-A.J. purchases a Honda hybrid car with his graduation money

15

​In persuasive messages, the careful evaluation of the content of a message is accomplished via which route of processing?

-central

16

​Heika and Lucille were both passed over for a promotion at work. Heika is sure that the boss does not like him, but he believes that Lucille was passed over because she is really a poor worker. His attribution of the cause of the event can be explained in terms of

-the actor-observer effect

17

One possible biological explanation for aggression involves the neurotransmitter ______, which acts like a “behavioral seat belt.”

-serotonin

18

According to the elaboration likelihood model, when elaboration likelihood is low, people

-use a peripheral route of processing information

19

Which subfield of psychology is concerned with how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by interactions with others?

-social psychology

20

​Randy believes that all people from Cropilia are basically aggressive. When he meets a Cropilian, he acts more aggressive himself. The Cropilian responds with aggressive behavior, which strengthens Randy’s impression of their aggressiveness and makes it harder to budge. This process is best described by the concept of

-self-fulfilling prophecy

21

​Research evidence on romantic attraction suggests that the major determinant of initial attraction is

-physical appearance

22

​What played the biggest role in explaining why people obeyed immoral commands in Milgram’s study?

-social comparison and legitimization of authority

23

People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique?

-foot-in-the-door

24

​The relationship between attitudes and behavior is best described as

-modest

25

​According to the text, one of the most common ways to reduce cognitive dissonance is to

-ignore the inconsistencies until they fade away

26

​Angela believes that people from Stovenia are basically dishonest. Angela is demonstrating

-stereotyping

27

Jen’s best friend just got fired from her part-time job waitressing. Jen’s first thought was “I knew she lacked the patience for that job.” Jen is illustrating ____.

-dispositional attribution

28

When social psychologists discuss impression formation, what are they talking about?

-The process by which people form opinions of others

29

​In attitudes, _______ are to cognitions as _______ are to emotions.

-beliefs; feelings

30

Which of the following is the best definition of obedience?

-compliance with the commands of authority figures

31

Katy swims faster when there are large crowds at the swim meet than when she practices and no one is around. Her faster times may be due to ____.

-social facilitation

32

​Dr. Longstocking is a research psychologist who studies attitudes, cognitive dissonance, and first impressions. Which type of psychologist is Dr. Longstocking?

-social psychologist

33

​Experiments on conformity suggest that conformity decreases under all but which of the following conditions?

-when the size of the group increases

34

Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally

-easier to persuade

35

Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice?

-behavior

36

Features of a communicator attempting to deliver a persuasive message are called

-source variables

37

Dana and Fox have a relationship in which they have intense sexual desires for each other. Their relationship can be described by which component of love in the triangular model?

passion

38

Compared to people from collectivist cultures, people from individualistic cultures are

-More likely to show a self-serving bias

39

People use a central route of processing information when

-elaboration likelihood is high

40

Paul and Joanna have a love relationship characterized by high levels of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using the triangular model, their love would be described as

-consummate love

41

Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain traits because ____.

-they belong to a articular group

42

If a behavior such as stealing a neighbor’s possessions is considered normal in one culture and abnormal in another, the normality or abnormality of the behavior is probably being judged according to ____.

-social norms

43

In persuasion, presenting both sides of an argument is

-effective when the counter-argument is refuted

44

​Using models to sell automobiles most directly addresses which aspect of the source?

-likeability

45

​Contemporary theorists are least likely to choose which factor to explain human aggression?

-instinct

46

Which of the following definitions best describes out-group negativism?

-A predisposition to attribute more negative characteristics to members of out-groups than to those of in-groups