Psychology Chapter 12
Mischa believes she did well on her English exam because she is very intelligent but that she failed her Chemistry exam because her instructor is not very good. We may explain her beliefs in terms of
In groupthink, the decision is ____ than ____.
-less important; reaching agreement
In order for intergroup contact to have a desirable effect on prejudice and intergroup tension, all but which of the following conditions are necessary?
-members with high levels of empathy
All of the following make attitudes more likely to influence behavior EXCEPT
Regarding influences on helping, which of the following statements is FALSE?
-The presence of others increases the likelihood that someone will choose to help
The self-defense explanation of a crime essentially involves convincing the jury to make what sort of attribution about the defendant’s actions?
Attitudes may be described as comprising which components?
-emotions, behaviors, and cognitions
The research area of psychology that studies how people interact with one another is:
Jamal is in a situation where another person needs help. According to the bystander intervention model, Jamal’s first step will be
-recognizing a need for help
A commanding officer gives a soldier an order that he knows the soldier would rather not obey. According to the findings of the Milgram obedience experiments, what should the officer do to increase the likelihood of obedience?
-Stay in the presence of the soldier until the order has been obeyed
If I look for the causes of your behavior in your disposition and personality traits, and overlook how the situation influenced your behavior, I am guilty of the ____.
-fundamental attribution error
A salesperson used a persuasive technique that was not based on the principle of compliance. Which technique was used?
Which researcher conducted an influential study on conformity?
Of the following people with attitudes toward hybrid vehicles, which one best describes the behavioral component of attitudes?
-A.J. purchases a Honda hybrid car with his graduation money
In persuasive messages, the careful evaluation of the content of a message is accomplished via which route of processing?
Heika and Lucille were both passed over for a promotion at work. Heika is sure that the boss does not like him, but he believes that Lucille was passed over because she is really a poor worker. His attribution of the cause of the event can be explained in terms of
-the actor-observer effect
One possible biological explanation for aggression involves the neurotransmitter ______, which acts like a “behavioral seat belt.”
According to the elaboration likelihood model, when elaboration likelihood is low, people
-use a peripheral route of processing information
Which subfield of psychology is concerned with how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by interactions with others?
Randy believes that all people from Cropilia are basically aggressive. When he meets a Cropilian, he acts more aggressive himself. The Cropilian responds with aggressive behavior, which strengthens Randy’s impression of their aggressiveness and makes it harder to budge. This process is best described by the concept of
Research evidence on romantic attraction suggests that the major determinant of initial attraction is
What played the biggest role in explaining why people obeyed immoral commands in Milgram’s study?
-social comparison and legitimization of authority
People with a high need for consistency are more likely to be susceptible to which compliance technique?
The relationship between attitudes and behavior is best described as
According to the text, one of the most common ways to reduce cognitive dissonance is to
-ignore the inconsistencies until they fade away
Angela believes that people from Stovenia are basically dishonest. Angela is demonstrating
Jen’s best friend just got fired from her part-time job waitressing. Jen’s first thought was “I knew she lacked the patience for that job.” Jen is illustrating ____.
When social psychologists discuss impression formation, what are they talking about?
-The process by which people form opinions of others
In attitudes, _______ are to cognitions as _______ are to emotions.
Which of the following is the best definition of obedience?
-compliance with the commands of authority figures
Katy swims faster when there are large crowds at the swim meet than when she practices and no one is around. Her faster times may be due to ____.
Dr. Longstocking is a research psychologist who studies attitudes, cognitive dissonance, and first impressions. Which type of psychologist is Dr. Longstocking?
Experiments on conformity suggest that conformity decreases under all but which of the following conditions?
-when the size of the group increases
Compared to people of higher intelligence, people of lower intelligence are generally
-easier to persuade
Discrimination represents which attitudinal component of prejudice?
Features of a communicator attempting to deliver a persuasive message are called
Dana and Fox have a relationship in which they have intense sexual desires for each other. Their relationship can be described by which component of love in the triangular model?
Compared to people from collectivist cultures, people from individualistic cultures are
-More likely to show a self-serving bias
People use a central route of processing information when
-elaboration likelihood is high
Paul and Joanna have a love relationship characterized by high levels of intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using the triangular model, their love would be described as
Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain traits because ____.
-they belong to a articular group
If a behavior such as stealing a neighbor’s possessions is considered normal in one culture and abnormal in another, the normality or abnormality of the behavior is probably being judged according to ____.
In persuasion, presenting both sides of an argument is
-effective when the counter-argument is refuted
Using models to sell automobiles most directly addresses which aspect of the source?
Contemporary theorists are least likely to choose which factor to explain human aggression?
Which of the following definitions best describes out-group negativism?
-A predisposition to attribute more negative characteristics to members of out-groups than to those of in-groups