BSC2085 Chapter 14

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1

51) Which of the following is NOT associated with the mouth:

A) soft palate B) vestibule C) rugae D) hard palate E) tongue

C

2

52) Which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal:

A) mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

B) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine

C) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine

D) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

E) pharynx, mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine

D

3

53) The structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the:

A) hard palate B) uvula C) teeth D) cheek E) soft palate

A

4

54) The fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior

movements is called the:

A) styloid bone

B) palatal frenulum

C) lingual frenulum

D) hyoid bone

E) mandibular frenulum

C

5

55) Which one of the following is continuous with the esophagus:

A) esophagopharynx

B) nasopharynx

C) oropharynx

D) linguopharynx

E) laryngopharynx

E

6

56) Which of the following is the moist innermost layer that lines the alimentary canal:

A) submucosa

B) serosa

C) myenteric nerve plexus

D) mucosa

E) muscularis externa

D

7

The submucosal and myenteric nerve plexuses that help regulate the mobility and secretory activity of the GI

tract organs are both part of the:

A) autonomic nervous system

B) somatic nervous system

C) fight- or- flight mechanism

D) central nervous system

E) sympathetic nervous system

A

8

58) Gastrin is produced in the stomach by:

A) submucosa cells

B) mucous (neck) cells

C) parietal cells

D) enteroendocrine cells

E) chief cells

D

9

59) The release of food from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the:

A) hepatopancreatic ampulla

B) ileocecal valve

C) internal anal sphincter

D) pyloric sphincter (valve)

E) cardioesophageal sphincter

D

10

60) Protein digestion begins in the:

A) stomach

B) small intestine

C) esophagus

D) large intestine

E) mouth

A

11

61) Which of the following modifications increases surface area in the small intestine with fingerlike extensions

of the mucosa :

A) sphincters

B) circular folds

C) haustra

D) villi

E) rugae

D

12

62) The small intestine extends from the:

A) pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve

B) cardioesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter

C) ileocecal valve to the appendix

D) appendix to the sigmoid colon

E) cardioesophageal sphincter to ileocecal valve

A

13

63) What two organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine:

A) cecum and appendix

B) spleen and liver

C) appendix and Peyer's patches

D) liver and pancreas

E) pancreas and spleen

D

14

64) Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the:

A) ileocecal valve

B) duodenum

C) jejunum

D) large intestine

E) ileum

B

15

65) The primary function of the small intestine is:

A) waste secretion

B) absorption of nutrients

C) mineral secretion

D) absorption of water

E) vitamin conversion

B

16

66) Which one of the following is NOT a modification (which is designed to increase surface area for absorption)

within the small intestine:

A) villi

B) circular folds

C) plicae circulares

D) microvilli

E) Peyer's patches

E

17

67) Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the large intestine:

A) colon B) cecum C) duodenum D) appendix E) rectum

C

18

68) The organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination

of feces is the:

A) large intestine

B) pancreas

C) stomach

D) liver

E) small intestine

A

19

69) What is the purpose of mastication:

A) to chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth

B) to eliminate undigested food wastes from the body

C) to transport nutrients into the blood and lymph

D) to move food back and forth along the walls of the small intestine

E) to propel food from one digestive organ to the next

A

20

70) Amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest:

A) starch B) protein C) minerals D) fat E) vitamins

A

21

71) The number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is:

A) 20 B) 32 C) 24 D) 36 E) 28

B

22

72) The anterior chisel- shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called:

A) molars

B) canines

C) premolars

D) incisors

E) wisdom teeth

D

23

73) Which accessory digestive organ is situated retroperitoneal:

A) salivary glands

B) spleen

C) gallbladder

D) pancreas

E) liver

D

24

74) Bile is produced by the __________ but stored in the __________.

A) gallbladder; pancreas

B) liver; gallbladder

C) gallbladder; liver

D) small intestine; pancreas

E) liver; pancreas

B

25

75) Which tube brings bile directly back into the gallbladder for storage when there is no digestion occurring in

the duodenum:

A) cystic duct

B) common hepatic duct

C) main pancreatic duct

D) accessory pancreatic duct

E) common bile duct

A

26

76) The sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks

by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called:

A) chemical digestion

B) propulsion

C) mechanical digestion

D) ingestion

E) absorption

A

27

77) The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called:

A) chemical digestion

B) absorption

C) mastication

D) peristalsis

E) ingestion

D

28

78) The process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by backward and

forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called:

A) absorption

B) defecation

C) segmentation

D) chemical digestion

E) peristalsis

C

29

79) Which one of the following is NOT one of the carbohydrates that the human digestive system is able to

break down to simple sugars:

A) lactose B) cellulose C) maltose D) starch E) sucrose

B

30

80) Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called:

A) peptides

B) fatty acids

C) glycerol

D) amino acids

E) polypeptides

D

31

81) Transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluid is

called:

A) digestion B) absorption C) defecation D) propulsion E) ingestion

B

32

82) Digestion is primarily controlled by the:

A) medulla oblongata

B) enterogastric reflex

C) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

D) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

E) somatic nervous system

D

33

83) Which of these events describes a chemical breakdown of food:

A) segmentation in the small intestine

B) peristalsis of food from one organ to the next

C) enzyme action of maltase acting on starch to break it into maltose

D) defecation of undigested food wastes by the rectum and anus

E) mastication in the mouth

C

34

84) The first nutrient to be chemically digested is:

A) protein B) minerals C) starch D) fat E) vitamins

C

35

85) The process of swallowing is also known as:

A) deglutition

B) mastication

C) defecation

D) segmentation

E) absorption

A

36

86) Which one of the following alimentary segments has NO digestive function:

A) duodenum

B) ileum

C) stomach

D) esophagus

E) ascending colon

D

37

87) Which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin:

A) stomach

B) liver

C) esophagus

D) small intestine

E) pancreas

A

38

88) Pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down:

A) carbohydrates

B) nucleic acids

C) polysaccharides

D) proteins

E) saturated fats

D

39

89) What does the enterogastric reflex accomplish:

A) stimulates gallbladder to contract and expel bile

B) slows the emptying of the stomach contents

C) stimulates emptying of the stomach contents

D) stimulates the release of gastric juices

E) increases output of enzyme- rich pancreatic juice

B

40

90) The enzyme responsible for converting milk protein in the stomach to a substance that looks like sour milk

in infants is:

A) bile

B) rennin

C) salivary amylase

D) pepsin

E) pancreatic amylase

B

41

91) The journey of chyme through the small intestine takes:

A) 3- 6 hours

B) 6- 8 hours

C) 2- 4 hours

D) 10- 12 hours

E) 8- 10 hours

A

42

92) Enzyme- rich pancreatic juice contains all the following except:

A) lipase B) trypsin C) nuclease D) amylase E) pancreatase

E

43

93) Which of the following influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile:

A) cholecystokinin and secretin

B) rennin and cholecystokinin

C) gastrin and rennin

D) cholecystokinin and gastrin

E) secretin and gastrin

A

44

94) Which one of the following is NOT absorbed by the human large intestine:

A) water

B) protein

C) some of the B vitamins

D) vitamin K

E) ions

B

45

95) The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measured in units called:

A) kilocalories B) carb units C) coenzymes D) calories E) ATP

A

46

96) Which of these foods would be the most mineral- rich:

A) cake B) milk C) cookies D) cereal E) pasta

B

47

97) The process by which larger molecules or structures are built up from smaller ones is called:

A) metabolism B) carbolysis C) anabolism D) glycolysis E) catabolism

C

48

98) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced in greatest quantity during:

A) the Krebs cycle

B) protein metabolism

C) the electron transport chain

D) fat metabolism

E) glycolysis

C

49

99) Which of the following chemical reactions performed by the liver creates sugars from noncarbohydrate

sources such as fats and proteins:

A) glycogenolysis

B) glycolysis

C) glycogenesis

D) anaerobic respiration

E) gluconeogenesis

E

50

100) Ketoacidosis results from the incomplete breakdown of:

A) glycogen

B) fats

C) nucleic acids

D) cholesterol

E) proteins

B

51

101) Which one of the following is NOT a main role of the liver:

A) to detoxify drugs and alcohol

B) to make cholesterol

C) to add ammonia to the blood

D) to process nutrients during digestion

E) to degrade hormones

C

52

102) Nutrients detour through the liver via the:

A) hepatic portal circulation

B) circle of Willis

C) Bowman's capsule

D) electron transport chain

E) glycogenesis

A

53

103) Which one of the following is NOT true of cholesterol:

A) it serves as the structural basis of steroid hormones

B) it is a major building block of plasma membranes

C) it serves as the structural basis of vitamin D

D) only about 15 percent comes from the diet

E) it provides energy fuel for muscle contraction

E

54

104) The hereditary inability of tissue cells to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, which can result in brain

damage and retardation unless a special diet low in phenylalanine is followed, is called:

A) cystic fibrosis

B) cleft lip

C) cleft palate

D) tracheoesophageal fistula

E) phenylketonuria

E

55

105) The reflex that helps an infant hold on to the nipple and swallow is called the:

A) fetal reflex

B) rooting reflex

C) sucking reflex

D) peristaltic reflex

E) nursing reflex

C