Chapter 14 ppt ( Mendel and the Gene Idea)

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1

The idea that ___ material contributed by 2 ___ mixes in a manner ____ to the way blue and yellow paints blend to make green

genetic, parents, analogous

2

An alternative to the blending model is the "______" hypothesis of inheritance also known as the ____

particulate, gene idea

3

An alternative to the blending model is the "particulate" hypothesis of inheritance ( the gene idea) where parents pass on ___ heritable units (genes)

discrete

4

Gregor Mendel is known as the father of

genetics

5

Gregor Mendel documented a particulate mechanism of inheritance through his experiments with ____

pea plants

6

Mendel chose to work with peas because of what 3 reasons

variety

strictly control mating

short generation ( producing a lot of offspring)

7

Pea plants have pollen -producing organs (male) known as

stamen

8

Pea plants have an egg -bearing organ ( female) known as

carpal

9

character is a ___ feature

heritable

10

characters are ___

inheritable

11

is flower color a character or a trait

character

12

trait is a variation of ___

character

13

is the purple or white flowers a character or trait

trait

14

cross fertilization or cross pollination is ______ between _____ plants

fertilization, different

15

Mendel chose to track only those characters that varied in " __-___" manner with an ___-

either-or, intermediate

16

purple or white nothing else (seed weight, height .. etc) is an example of what manner

either-or

17

Menden also made sure that he started his experiments with varieties that were "____-____"

true-breeding

18

When plants self-pollinate they produce offspring of the __ variety generation after generation

same

19

Purple plants gave rise to just purple plants or white plants gave rise to just white plants is what manner?

"true-breeding"

20

In typical breeding experiment mendel mated 2 ___ , ___ varieties

contrasting, true-breeding

21

In a typical breeding experiment mendel mated 2 contrasting true-breeding varieties in a process known as

hybridization

22

The true-breeding parents are called the ___ generation

P

23

The hybrid offspring of the P generation are called the ___ generation

F1

24

When F1 individuals self-pollinate they produce the ___ generation

F2

25

( the law of segregation) when mendel crossed contrasting true-breeding white and purple flowered pea plants all of the offspring were

purple

26

( the law of segregation) when mendel crossed the F1 plants many of the F2 plants had ___ flowers but some had ___ flowers

purple, white

27

Mendel discovered a ratio of about __-___ purple to white flowers in the F2 generation

3-1

28

Mendel reasoned that in the F1 plants only the ___ flower factor was affecting the flower color in these hybrids

purple

29

Purple flower was

dominant

30

White flower was

recessive

31

the factor for ___ flowers was not diluted or destroyed because it reappeared in the F2 generation

white

32

1 trait will be ___ and the other trait will be ___

dominant, recessive

33

Dominant traits are expressed with

Capital letters

34

Recessive traits are expressed with

lowercase letters

35

The dominant trait is expressed ____ % in F1 generation

100

36

Dominant in F2 generation is always _-_ ratio

3-1

37

How many concepts make up mendels model

4

38

( 1st mendels model) alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters known as

alleles

39

( 1st mendels model) slighly ___ nucleotide sequence on ___ of ____

different, locus, DNA

40

1 gene equals how many alleles

2

41

(2 mendel model) an organism inherits __ alleles __ from each parent

2, 1

42

What are the 4 concepts of mendels model

alleles

each character

if 2 alleles at locus differ

law of segregation

43

(2 mendel model) either 2 of the ___ allele ( true-breeding) or 2 ___ alleles

same, different

44

(3 mendel model) if 2 alleles at a locus differ then 1 the ___ allele determines the organisms appearance ( uppercase letter)

dominant

45

(3 mendel model) if the 2 alleles at a locus differ the other allele the __ allele has no noticeable effect on the organisms appearance ( lowercase letter)

recessive

46

(4 mendel model) the 2 alleles for a heritable character ___ during ____ formation and end up in ___ gametes

separate ( segregate), gamete, different

47

gamete formation is known as

gametogenesis

48

The law of segregation is expressed in what stage of meiosis

anaphase 1

49

When using a punnett square the dominant trait has to ALWAYS be ___ in the box

first

50

an organism with 2 identical alleles for a gene is a

homozygote

51

it is said to be _____ for the gene controlling that character (Ho)

homozygous

52

homozygous for the gene exhibits ____

true-breeding

53

PP is what genotype

homozygous dominant

54

pp is what genotype

homozygous recessive

55

an organism with 2 different alleles for a gene is a ___

heterozygote

56

It is said to be ___ for the gene controlling that character (He)

heterozygous

57

Pp is what genotype

heterozygous

58

genotype =

alletic combination

59

heterozygous are NOT _____

true-breeding

60

an organisms phenotype is its

physical appearance

61

an organisms genotype is its

genetic makeup

62

What is the formula for the genotypic ratio:

HD: HE:HR

63

What is the formula for the phenotypic ratio:

D:R

64

With any ratio for phenotype or genotype you NEVER

reduce

65

an individual with the dominant phenotype could be either _____ or _____

homozygous dominant or heterozygous

66

a test cross allows for us to determine the genotype of an organism with a _____ phenotype but unknown genotype

dominant

67

A testcross crosses an individual with the dominant phenotype with an individual that is _________ for a trait

homozygous recessive

68

If any offspring display the recessive phenotype the mystery parent must be ______

heterozygous

69

Mendel derived the law of segregation by following a ___

single gene

70

The f1 offspring produced in this cross is called a

monohybrid cross

71

It is a monohybrid cross as long as the genes are on separate _____ chromosomes

homozygous

72

Mendel identified his second law of inheritance by following ___ genes at the ___ time

2, same

73

crossing 2 true-breeding parents differing in 2 characters produce ___ in the F1 generation

dihybrids

74

in monohybrids heterozygous for __ character(s)

1

75

in dihybrids heterozygous for __ character(s)

both

76

a dihybrid cross produces ___ phenotypes in the F2 generation

4

77

Using the information from a dihybrid cross mendel developed the law of _____

independent assortment

78

each pair of alleles segregates independently of any other pair during ____ formation

gamete

79

The law of independent assortment occurs in what stage of meiosis

metaphase 1

80

Following normal mendel genetics with genes on separate homologous chromosomes in both parents are heterozygous for both genes you will always get a ratio of __:__:__:__

9:3:3:1

81

Non-mendelian genetics do not follow

normal mendel genetics

82

the relationship between genotype and phenotype is rarely ___

simple

83

The inheritance of characters by a single gene may deviate from simple mendelian patterns when (3)

alleles aren't completely dominant or recessive

when a gene has more than 2 alleles

when a single gene produces multiple phenotypes

84

Spectrum of dominance is when alleles show different degrees of ___ and ___ in relation to each other

dominance , recessiveness

85

Complete dominance =

mendelian genetics

86

complete dominance occurs when the phenotypes of the ____ and the dominant ___ are ____

heterozygote, homozygote, identical

87

PP and Pp both produce purple plants because of

complete dominance

88

What is an example of complete dominance

cystic fibrosis

89

Incomplete dominance=

non-mendelian genetics

90

In incomplete dominance the phenotype of F1 hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes of the 2 _____

parental varieties

91

In incomplete dominance there is not enough _____ to block ___

dominant, recessive

92

What is an example of incomplete dominance

flowers

93

In codominance 2 dominant alleles affect the ____ in ____, ____ ways

phenotype, separate, distinguished

94

In codominance there is no ____ allele

recessive

95

In codominance both are ____ expressed

equally

96

What is an example of codominance

RBC

97

a dominant alle do not subdue a recessive alle: the alleles don't

interact

98

alleles are simply variations in a gene's ____ sequence

nucleotide

99

For any character, dominant/ recessiveness relationships of alleles depend on the level at which we examine the ___

phenotype

100

dactyl=

digits

101

Dominant alleles are not necessarily ____ common in populations than recessive alleles

more

102

What is an example of the frequency of dominant alleles

polydactyl

103

polydactyl is when people are born with six ___ or ___

fingers or toes

104

polydactyl is most common in

cats

105

most genes exist in populations in more than ____ alletic forms

2

106

The ABO blood group in humans is determined by ___ alleles by a ____ gene

multiple, single

107

I A is the presence of

carbohydrate A

108

IB is the presence of

carbohydrate b

109

i is not having

any carbohydrate

110

using multiple alleles example

human blood type

111

multiple alleles code for

glycoproteins

112

pleiotropy is a single gene that effects multiple ____ traits

phenotypic

113

What is an example of pleiotropy

human disease PKU

114

The human disease PKU causes mental_____ and reduced __ and ___ pigmentation

retardation, hair, skin

115

The cause of the human disease PKU is a mutation in a single gene that codes for an ___ that converts 1 _____ into another.

enzyme, amino acid

116

The human disease PKU effects __ parts of the body

many

117

some traits may be determined by __ or ___ genes

2, more

118

In epistasis a gene at one locus ___ the ___ expression of a gene at a second locus

alters, phenotypic

119

many human characters vary in the population among a range and are called ______ characters

quantitative

120

quantitative characters indicate

polygenic inheritance

121

polygenic inheritance is 2 or more genes that ___ the ___ of 1 trait

control, phenotype

122

What is an example of a polygenic inheritance

skin pigmentation, eye-color, height, hair, color, etc.

123

another departure from simple mendelian genetics arises when the phenotype for a character depends on ____ as well as genotype

enviroment

124

what is an example for another departure from simple mendelian genetics arises when the phenotype for a character depends on enviroment as well as genotype

amount of water, nutrition, sunlight, etc. all effect growth, hormones, color, protein function and production, etc.

125

traits that depend on multiple ___ combined with ____ influences are called ____

genes, environmental, multifactoral

126

an organisms phenotype includes its physical appearance, ______, ___, and ___

internal anatomy, physiology, behavior

127

an organisms genotype reflects its overall genotype and unique _____

enviromental history

128

a pedigree is a family tree that describes the ______ of parents and children across generations

interrelationships

129

a pedigree can't manipulate __ patterns so must use another source

mating

130

pedigree charts help predict

future

131

pedigree charts are useful in case of

genetic disorders

132

many genetic disorders are inherited in a ____ manner

recessive

133

examples of recessively inherited disorders

albinism, hemophilia, color blindness, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia

134

the allele that codes for genetic disorder has either a ___ protein or no ___ at all

malfunctioning, protein

135

Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals _____ for the allele

homozygous

136

Carriers are ___ individuals who carry the ___ allele but are ___ normal

heterozygous, recessive, phenotypically

137

Carriers have enough normal __ to function properly

protein

138

cystic fibrosis common among ___ descent (__% are carriers)

european , 4

139

(cystic fibrosis) normal allele for gene codes for ___ transport between ___ and ___

Cl-, cells, ECF

140

(cystic fibrosis) __ transports channels ____ or ____ in cystic fibrosis individuals

Cl-, defective, absent

141

symptoms of cystic fibrosis

mucus buildup in some internal organs due to high ____ of __

extracellular concentration, Cl-

142

symptoms of cystic fibrosis

poor ___ of nutrients in the small intestine

absorption

143

symptoms of cystic fibrosis

chronic ___

bronchitis

144

symptoms of cystic fibrosis

recurrent ___ infections

bacterial

145

if cystic fibrosis is untreated , most likely will die by __ years old

5

146

if treated can survive until ___ to ___ years old

20, 30

147

sickle-cell disease (ex. pleiotrophy)

affects __ out of ___ african-americans and __ out of __ africans

1, 400, 1, 10

148

sickle-cell disease (ex. pleiotrophy)associated with low ___ of ___

occurence, malaria

149

sickle-cell disease (ex. pleiotrophy) is caused by the __ of a single amino acid in the _____ protein in red blood cells

substitution, hemoglobin

150

Symptoms of sickle-cell disease include

physical weakness, pain, organ damage

151

symptoms of sickle-cell disease even go as far as ___ due to ___ clogging small____ when __ content is low

paralysis, sickled RBC, BV, O2

152

little O2= sickle- cell hemoglobin aggregate into long __ that form the red cells into a ___ shape

rods, sickle

153

in sickle-cell disease the ___ benefit

heterozygotes

154

mating between relatives can __ the probability of passing on ___ traits

increase, recessive

155

mating between relatives are called _____, "__" matings

consanguineous, same blood

156

when mating between relatives more likely mating produces offspring ___ for ___ traits since both relatives are likely to carry the trait

homozygous, recessive

157

When mating between relatives still __ and ___ are likely

births, birth defects

158

some human disorders are due to dominant allleles one example is

achondroplasia

159

achondroplasia is a form of ____ that is ____ when _____ for the dominant allele

dwarfism, lethal, homozygous

160

achondroplasia affects _ in _ people

1, (25,000)

161

With achondroplasia ____ % of population is homozygous recessive for this trait

99.99%

162

in dominantly inherited disorders the ___ allele is more prevalent than the ____ one

recessive, dominant

163

huntington's disease

__ to___ people

1 to 10,000

164

huntington's disease

is a ____ disease of the ____ system from a ____ dominant allele

degenerative, nervous, lethal

165

huntington's disease

has no obvious _____ effects until about ___ to ___ years of age

phenotypic, 35 to 40