sociology chap 2

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1

The author’s experience in Morocco, which included the absence of women from public positions, intense stares directed at him, pushing and shoving at the train station, and total disregard for sanitation by food vendors, left the author with a profound sense of ________.

cutlure shock

2

Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ________.

culture

3

Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of ________.

material culture

4

In 1906, sociologist William Sumner made the comment, “One’s own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled, rated, and judged with reference to it.” This statement is most aligned with the concept of ___________________.

ethnocentrism

5

When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, “They’re primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast.” Harry’s reply best qualifies as an example of ________.

ethnocentrism

6

While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina was playing with the day before. At this point Kristina became ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia. Which statement most applies to Kristina’s experience?

Kristina experienced culture shock.

7

In his book Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgerton proposed that cultures should be evaluated on their “quality of life” and not just automatically accepted. This is contrary to which of the following sociological concepts?

cultural relativism

8

All of the following statements are accurate in describing gestures EXCEPT for which one?

Social scientists agree that most gestures are universal.

Gestures rely on the use of one’s body to communicate with others

A gesture’s meaning may change completely from one culture to another.

People in every part of the world use gestures.

Social scientists agree that most gestures are universal.

9

Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This system is referred to as ________.

language

10

All of the following statements are accurate regarding language EXCEPT for which one?

Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds

Language allows culture to exist.

Language is the primary method people use to communicate with one another

Language is based on a series of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways.

Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds

11

Sociologists use the concept of “norms” to describe ________.

expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values

12

Making the Honor Roll, receiving a good grade, and giving a “high five” are examples of ________.

positive sanctions

13

Anthropologists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf concluded that ________.

language creates and shapes our ways of thinking and perceiving

14

The type of norm that is not strictly enforced is called a ________________.

folkway

15

When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a(n) ________.

subculture

16

Every December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the “festival of lights,” during which special foods are served, rituals are practiced, and traditional activities take place that are unique to this faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith would represent which concept?

subculture

17

Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the “Girls Gone Wild” video. Which statement best describes the probable reason behind the behavior of Clarisse and Cindy? _________

Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday

18

Courtney raises champion sheep, Joe is a cab driver in New York, and Rufus is a member of the RAW family of professional wrestling. What do Courtney, Joe, and Rufus have in common?

They are all members of subcultures.

19

All of the following are examples of countercultures EXCEPT for which one? _____________

Denver Bronco fans

Hippies of the 1960s

Members of an outlaw biker gang

members of the Klu Klux Klan

Denver Bronco fans

20

Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist Robin Williams? ________

achievement and success

21

Good nutrition, medical care, comfortable housing, a nice car, and clean bathrooms are included in a classification of values in American society that sociologist Robin Williams would call ________.

material comfort

22

Although computers are supplied by the university, many professors never quite learn how to use them. Others feel they might break them, so they avoid trying anything new. Others save data to their hard drive but also make a paper copy to keep. Such behavior is an example of ________.

cultural lag

23

In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication and westernized culture can be seen in most people groups across the world (such as in primitive tribes wearing clothes that look like they came from Wal Mart). Sociologists use the term “________” to describe this process.

cultural leveling

24

At its best, cultural relativism helps us to understand other cultures in their own contexts and from the perspective of those who practice that culture.

True or False

True

25

At its worst, cultural relativism dismisses practices that hurt or exploit people based on the idea of it just being “relative” to their culture.

True