Chapter 15 -- Eukaryoric Cell Cycle, Mitosis & Meiosis

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1

Polyploidy in plants

All of below:

  • is very common.
  • allows for adaptation to diverse environments.
  • may alter the levels of gene expression.
  • allows humans to create plants with unusual flowers.

Polyploidy in plants
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.04 Give examples of how changes in chromosome number affect the characteristics of animals and plants.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

2

Meiosis I produces ________, and meiosis II produces _________ cells.

two haploid, 4 haploid

Meiosis I produces ________, and meiosis II ...
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

3

Colchicine is a toxin that binds to tubulin proteins and prevents microtubules from polymerizing. What affect might this have on dividing cells?

Sister chromatids will not be properly separated into separate daughter cells

4

You prepare the first ever karyotype of an endangered species of frog. Upon examination you find that all the chromosomes are metacentric. This is going to make it difficult to identify

both the p and q arms of the chromosome.

You prepare the first ever karyotype of an e...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.01 Describe the features of chromosomes and how sets of chromosomes are examined microscopically.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis.

5

Which of the following is NOT a checkpoint that controls the progression of the cell cycle?

Cytokinesis involves the formation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells.

The control of the cell cycle involves all o...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.03 Explain how cyclins and cdks work together to advance a cell through the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

6

Consider a cell in which all of the homologous chromosomes experience nondisjunction during meiosis I. What would be the result of this event?

"Resulting are aneuploid, resulting in gametes with 4 chromosomes and 2 chromosomes instead of 3"

?two polyploid gametes

?one trisomic and three monosomic gametes

?four aneuploid gametes

?four monosomic gametes

X four aneuploid gametes: one trisomic and three monosomic

Consider a cell in which all of the homologo...
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.03 Compare and contrast changes in the number of sets of chromosomes and changes in the number of individual chromosomes.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

7

Chromosomes inside the nucleus do not overlap with each other because

they all have a specific chromosome territory that is determined by the nuclear matrix.

Chromosomes inside the nucleus do not overla...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.01 Describe the features of chromosomes and how sets of chromosomes are examined microscopically.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

8

Which of the following statements about sister chromatids is TRUE?

?Sister chromatids are produced during mitosis

?Sister chromatids are held together by complementary base pairing of DNA at the centromere

2 = ?Sister chromatids are exact copies of each other

X Sister chromatids contain the same genes, but they may have different alleles

X All

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.02.01 Describe how the replication of eukaryotic chromosomes produces sister chromatids.
Section: 15.02 Mitotic Cell Division
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

9

What does not happen in the cytokinesis of plant cells?

Formation of cleavage furrow to separate the cells

What does not happen in the cytokinesis of p...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.02.03 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of mitosis.
Section: 15.02 Mitotic Cell Division
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

10

The process by which haploid cells are produced from diploid cells is called

meiosis

The process by which haploid cells are produ...
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

11

The following graph represents the concentration of cyclins over the course of the cell cycle. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the phase of the cell cycle where the green arrow (highest concentration of m-cyclin in M phase) is pointing?

?At this point in the cell cycle, the cell has determined that the DNA is intact and environmental conditions are favorable for DNA replication

?At this point in the cell cycle, chromosomes have properly aligned on the metaphase plate and are beginning to separate

?At this point in the cycle the cell is determining if environmental conditions are favorable for growth and proliferation

?At this point in the cycle the cell is continuing to grow and make abundant tubulin proteins

cyclins in the cell cycle
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.03 Explain how cyclins and cdks work together to advance a cell through the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

12

During prometaphase, the sister chromatids organize into a single row in the center of the cell.

False

prometaphase: nuclear envelope completely fragments into small vesicles and the mitotic spindle is fully formed

During prometaphase, the sister chromatids o...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.02.03 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of mitosis.
Section: 15.02 Mitotic Cell Division
Topic: Meiosis

13

One major difference between metaphase I and metaphase II is the presence or absence of bivalents.

True

One major difference between metaphase I and...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

14

The following graph represents the concentration of cyclins over the course of the cell cycle. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the phase of the cell cycle where the red arrow (highest concentration of G1/S-cyclin) is pointing?

At this point in the cell cycle, the cell is committing to divide mitotically

Cyclin and the cell cycle
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.03 Explain how cyclins and cdks work together to advance a cell through the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

15

DNA associates very tightly with nucleosomes because

negative charges on DNA are attracted to positive charges of the histone proteins.

the overall charge of DNA is negative. Opposite charges attract. The histones are positively charged. The two charges are attracted to each other causing them to bind

LO: 15.01.01 Describe the features of chromosomes and how sets of chromosomes are examined microscopically.

Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

16

The major way that meiosis II differs from mitosis is that

in meiosis II, the cells are haploid.

The major way that meiosis II differs from m...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.03 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis, focusing on key steps that account for the different outcomes of these two processes
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

17

Which of the following statements about the cell cycle is correct?

When the S phase of the cell cycle is finished, a cell has twice as many chromatids as the number of chromosomes in the G1 phase.

Which of the following statements is correct...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.02 List the phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

18

Which of the following is NOT a part of the mitotic spindle apparatus in plants?

centrioles

19

How are sister chromatids connected to each other?

Through cohesion proteins

20

A cell undergoing meiosis that contains sister chromatids may be either haploid or diploid.

True

Meiosis: process by which haploid cells are produced from a cell that was originally diploid -- "the cell undergoing meiosis can be diploid or haploid depending on which stage of meiosis you are in."

LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

21

Which of the following mutations will not alter the amount of genetic material on the chromosomes?

inversion

Inversions flips a region of genetic material in the opposite direction but does not affect the amount of material. Translocation attaches different segments of one chromosome to another this means that it adds to the amount of genetic material.

LO: 15.04.02 Identify the four ways that the structure of chromosome can be changed via mutation.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

22

The karyotype of a normal human male would show a total of 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.

False

The karyotype of a normal human male would s...
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.04 Give examples of how changes in chromosome number affect the characteristics of animals and plants.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

23

The centromere

is a group of proteins that attach to the mitotic spindle.

The centromere
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.01 Describe the features of chromosomes and how sets of chromosomes are examined microscopically.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

24

Mitotic cell division is never used by organisms as a means of reproduction.

False (asexual reproduction)

Mitotic cell division is never used by organ...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.04 Distinguish between the life cycles of diploid-dominant species, haploid-dominant species, and species that exhibit an alternation of generations.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

25

For any given species, cells in metaphase II of meiosis would contain 2× more genetic material than cells in metaphase of mitosis.

False

For any given species, cells in metaphase II...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.03 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis, focusing on key steps that account for the different outcomes of these two processes
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

26

In a tetraploid species, a euploid individual would have __ sets of chromosomes.

4

In a tetraploid species, a euploid individua...
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.03 Compare and contrast changes in the number of sets of chromosomes and changes in the number of individual chromosomes.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

27

Put the following steps in the procedure for producing a karyotype in the correct order.
I. Cells are visualized under the microscope.
II. Cells are stimulated to divide.
III. Homologues are organized into sets by matching size and banding patterns.
IV. The cells are exposed to a hypotonic solution.
V. Cells are stained and placed on a microscope slide.

II, IV, V, I, III

Put the following steps in the procedure for...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.01 Describe the features of chromosomes and how sets of chromosomes are examined microscopically.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

28

Consider a diploid species where n=5. If an individual of this species was found to have 11 chromosomes, it would be categorized as

aneuploid

Trisomy 2 -- (2n +1)

Consider a diploid species where n=5. If an ...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.03 Compare and contrast changes in the number of sets of chromosomes and changes in the number of individual chromosomes.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

29

Chromosomes are replicated during the ______ phase.

S

30

Synaptonemal complexes form during

prophase of meiosis I

Synaptonemal complexes form during
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.01 Describe the processes of synapsis and crossing over.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

31

Most human embryos that are aneuploid

are spontaneously aborted in the first trimester.

32

In mitosis, the main difference between plant and animal cells is that

plants produce a cell plate to segregate the daughter nuclei, while animals form a cleavage furrow.

33

In a haploid dominant species

the multicellular organism is haploid, and only the zygote is diploid.

34

During crossing over in meiosis, an incomplete exchange of genetic material occurs. This would most likely produce

?a deficiency in one homologue and a duplication in the other homologue.

?a deficiency in both homologues.

?a deficiency in one homologue and an inversion in the other homologue.

? a reciprocal translocation.

X a duplication in one homologue and an inversion in the other homologue.

35

The life cycle of a sexual reproducing organisms includes:

mitosis, meiosis, and fusion of the gametes.

36

Humans have __________ different types of autosomes.

22

37

A chromosome with the centromere located two-thirds of the distance from its end could be classified as

either submetacentric or acrocentric.

A chromosome with the centromere located two...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.01 Describe how chromosomes can vary in size, centromere location, and number.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

38

Why are aneuploidies involving sex chromosomes less detrimental than those involving somatic chromosomes?

?Sex chromosomes do not contain genes that are important for anything other than sex determination

?In females, all but one X-chromosome is inactivated, in males, the Y chromosome contains very few genes, so extra or missing copies do not cause huge abnormalities

?Genes expression of the sex chromosomes is not dosage dependent as it is in the somatic chromosomes

?Sex chromosomes are only found in gametes, they do not occur in diploid cells

aneuploidies involving sex chromosomes
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.04.04 Give examples of how changes in chromosome number affect the characteristics of animals and plants.
Section: 15.04 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number
Topic: Meiosis

39

Which of the following occurs during metaphase

?heterochromatin is converted to euchromatin.

?chromosomes are about 30 nm wide.

?chromosomes are much shorter than they were in interphase.

?chromosomes undergo gene transcription.

During metaphase,
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.02.03 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of mitosis.
Section: 15.02 Mitotic Cell Division
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

40

Sister chromatids separate during

anaphase of meiosis II.

Sister chromatids separate during
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

41

A mutation occurs in a gene that encodes a G1-cyclin, such that the protein is unable to bind to its CDK. How will this affect the cell cycle?

The cell will be stuck in G1 and will not advance through the cell cycle.

42

The following graph represents the concentration of cyclins over the course of the cell cycle. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the phase of the cell cycle where the blue arrow (highest concentration of S-cyclin) is pointing?

?At this point in the cell cycle, chromosomes have properly aligned on the metaphase plate and are beginning to separate

X At this point in the cell cycle, DNA has already been replicated and divided into two daughter nuclei

?At this point in the cycle the cell is determining if environmental conditions are favorable for growth and proliferation

?At this point in the cycle the cell is continuing to grow and make abundant tubulin proteins

cyclins in the cell cycle
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.03 Explain how cyclins and cdks work together to advance a cell through the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

43

A person who inherits an extra X chromosome will have

Klinefelter syndrome.

44

The following graph represents the concentration of cyclins over the course of the cell cycle. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the cell cycle where the red arrow (highest concentration of G1 / S-cyclin) is pointing?

?CDK proteins are actively phosphorylating proteins that are involved in DNA replication

?CDK proteins are actively phosphorylating proteins that are responsible for assembling the mitotic spindle

X CDK proteins are actively phosphorylating and activating cyclins so that the cell will prepare to replicate its DNA

?CDK proteins are actively phosphorylating regions of the DNA that need to be targeted for DNA repair

cyclins and CDKs
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.01.03 Explain how cyclins and cdks work together to advance a cell through the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Section: 15.01 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

45

A species that has three sets of homologous chromosomes can have up to _ different combinations of chromosomes in the gametes.

? 6

? 8

? 64

(not 3 or 27)

A species that has three sets of homologous ...
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

46

Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning sister chromatids?

Sister chromatids separate during telophase.

Which of the following statements is incorre...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.02.01 Describe how the replication of eukaryotic chromosomes produces sister chromatids.
Section: 15.02 Mitotic Cell Division
Topic: Cell Cycle and Mitosis

47

Sexual life cycles include both haploid and diploid stages.

True

48

A diploid queen honeybee produce eggs by meiosis. Some of these eggs are never fertilized, while the rest are. These unfertilized eggs develop into haploid male honeybee. This can be an example of sexual reproduction.

True

A diploid queen honeybee produce eggs by mei...
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.04 Distinguish between the life cycles of diploid-dominant species, haploid-dominant species, and species that exhibit an alternation of generations.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosis

49

If a cell contains 20 chromosomes during G2, it will have 40 chromosomes during S.

False

50

At the end of meiosis I

the cells are haploid and the homologous pairs are in separate cells.

At the end of meiosis I
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
LO: 15.03.02 Outline the key events that occur during the phases of meiosis.
Section: 15.03 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Topic: Meiosi