Experience History: Interpreting America's Past: Fall Term History Exam Flashcards
The chapter introduction tells the story of the Powhatan confederacy to make the point that
A)Indians initially tolerated the first English settlers as allies against rival tribes, but the cultivation of tobacco led to destruction of Indian power.
B)the initial English settlements at Virginia survived only because of the generous assistance provided by local Indian tribes.
C)Powhatan had no strategy to deal with the white "tribes" who invaded his domain, so he tried in vain to organize an alliance to resist the English.
D)since the English colony was so self-sufficient, they felt no need to cultivate friendly relations with the few scattered, unorganized tribal bands in the Chesapeake region.
What accounts for the survival of the Virginia colony?
A)Its early settlers willingly worked hard to establish a viable settlement.
B)Initially incentives brought immigrants; later the political power of planters created stability while conditions improved for small planters and farmers.
C)The local confederacy of Indian tribes allied itself with the English in order to take advantage of trade; in return, they taught the first settlers how to cultivate corn.
D)The healthy natural and human environments insured a high birth rate and low death rate among colonists in the early years.
Mortality rates in Virginia in the 1620s were
A)the same as in England.
B)lower than in England.
C)higher than England's normal death rate.
D)higher than England's death rate during times of epidemic disease.
What is significant about the Indian-white war in Virginia in the early 1620s?
A)It proved the exception to the regular pattern of Indian-white cooperation in the southern colonies.
B)It demonstrated a pattern in which resistance by Indians would be met with swift and brutal retaliation.
C)It wiped out local Indian resistance, thus insuring the company's survival.
D)It destroyed many of the tobacco fields, thus ending the tobacco boom.
British authorities based their colonial trade policies, as embodied in the Navigation Acts, on the theory of
A)mercantilism: insuring self-sufficiency by controlling trade.
B)industrialism: promoting English industrial development.
C)imperialism: keeping the American colonies weak and dependent.
D)developmentalism: stimulating colonial economic diversification.
Because Maryland was granted as a "proprietary colony" to the Calvert family, they could
A)give land to their friends.
B)collect fees annually from every settler in the colony for the use of the land.
C)extend complete religious freedom to all Christians, including Catholics.
D)All these answers are correct.
Between 1492 and 1820, enslaved African migrants
A)were about half as numerous as white migrants.
B)arrived in roughly the same number as white migrants.
C)outnumbered white migrants by nearly two to one.
D)outnumbered white migrants by nearly five to one.
By the end of the 1600s, the leaders of Chesapeake society were able to foster greater unity and stability due to all of the following EXCEPT
A)relying more on slavery than servitude.
B)improving economic opportunities for freed servants and small landowners.
C)accepting responsibility for the welfare of their social and economic inferiors.
D)encouraging a greater role in government for the middle and lower classes.
French and English colonization of the Caribbean resulted in the "loss of paradise," but also
A)resurgent growth in population among Indians, who acquired immunity to European diseases.
B)the introduction of political stability among English colonists, who replaced frontier outposts with massive military fortifications.
C)the beginnings of West Indian influence in North America, as planters began to settle the Carolinas.
D)the discovery of a new paradise for Dutch colonists, who introduced and monopolized plantation production of sugar.
One of the differences between South Carolina and the Chesapeake was that
A)the Chesapeake had a black majority.
B)Virginia and Maryland were Catholic; South Carolina was Protestant.
C)wealthy South Carolina planters primarily grew rice; the Chesapeake gentry were primarily tobacco growers and brokers.
D)South Carolinians enjoyed peaceful relations with Indians.
Pilgrims and Puritans migrated to New England for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)their zeal to convert the Indians.
B)the perceived failure of the English government to purify society and the church.
D)persecution by James I.
The "Mayflower Compact" of the Separatists was
A)a basis for government devised without a legal basis to do so.
B)an agreement to organize a colony as provided in their original charter.
C)a small group of Pilgrims who determined onboard ship that ministers would hold ultimate authority in the colony.
D)a small floral garden intended to illustrate how God's creation of Eden was a model for society.
The Puritans who founded the Massachusetts Bay Company
A)received a royal charter with title to most of present-day Massachusetts and New Hampshire.
B)were abandoning the Anglican church.
C)had few wealthy members among their ranks.
D)had an inefficient organizational structure and a sense of disunity within the membership.
The description of Massachusetts Bay Colony, using the biblical metaphor of a "city upon a hill," relates to the Puritan founders' idea that the colony should
A)be separate from the world.
B)be located on a readily defensible site.
C)be a refuge for all religious dissenters.
D)serve as an example to the world.
New England proved a more hospitable site for colonization than the Chesapeake because
A)most settlers in New England arrived in family groups, rather than as single indentured servants.
B)the male settlers were mostly free, skilled, and literate.
C)most of the settlers arrived in a cluster between 1630 and 1642, creating a sense of solidarity within the community.
D)All these answers are correct.
In 1638 the Bay Colony government expelled Anne Hutchinson and her followers for sedition. Where did they initially settle after being expelled?
What percentage of accused witches were women?
The mid-Atlantic colonies
A)followed the same patterns of settlement as the New England colonies.
B)discovered cash crops in the southern colonies as successful as tobacco, rice, and sugar.
C)founded stable governments that maintained popular support.
D)became a region in which a variety of ethnic and religious groups vied for political authority and economic success.
How did New Netherlands become New York?
A)The Dutch sold it to the English.
B)The Dutch abandoned it; the English then colonized it.
C)The English in adjacent areas gradually absorbed the isolated Dutch settlements.
D)The English ignored Dutch claims and conquered it.
Pennsylvania quickly prospered for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)Penn's planning and publicity efforts.
B)Penn's honest dealings with the Indians that preserved peace.
C)Parliament's generous subsidy.
D)Pennsylvania's rich farmland and Philadelphia's superb natural harbor.
Why did colonists and immigrants settle the backcountry or frontier in the eighteenth century?
A)Due to population growth, older rural communities could not absorb additional population.
B)British imperial policy required the establishment of new towns in the West.
C)They tried to escape the increasing social diversity of the seaport cities and older rural areas.
D)Colonies took steps to defend their frontiers against French expansion.
A)quickly established a social hierarchy that provided consistent local leadership.
B)relied on churches to maintain law and order.
C)created cultures based on a strong sense of egalitarianism.
D)became a new source of land for planters with large contingents of slaves.
The colonial seaports were not only centers for overseas trade, they were also places where
A)enterprising merchants organized and controlled the commerce of the surrounding region.
B)religious revivals had their first major effects.
C)British imperial authority remained visible and strong.
D)slavery was first outlawed.
Unlike slaves on Carolina plantations, those in the Chesapeake
A)had less contact with whites.
B)enjoyed greater autonomy because of the "task system."
C)lived on smaller plantations with fewer slaves.
D)were mostly African-born.
Native-born African Americans
A)had an advantage over African-born slaves in procuring wives.
B)generally got along well with their African-born counterparts.
C)had a similar mortality to African-born slaves.
D)remained a clearly distinct segment of the slave community throughout the eighteenth century.
The direct influence of the Enlightenment in America was
A)widespread, affecting all classes and regions.
B)widespread, affecting all except the poorest backcountry farmers.
C)confined mainly to the clergy.
D)confined mainly to some skilled artisans and elite planters and merchants.
The Great Awakening would be best described as
A)an intellectual movement, based primarily on new discoveries in science.
B)a humanitarian movement, which sought to improve the quality of life for the poor.
C)a rationalist, religious movement, which had its greatest impact among the well-educated in eastern seaboard cities.
D)an emotional, revivalist movement, which had its greatest impact in both the coastal regions and the backcountry.
The Great Awakening caused all of the following EXCEPT
A)the creation of a culture of common experience throughout the colonies.
B)a further division among the regions of colonial North America upon religious grounds.
C)a revival of the influence of a Calvinist vision of God as terrifying and punishing.
D)a furthering of the ideals of the Enlightenment.
American reservations about English society included all of the following EXCEPT
A)anxieties that gross inequalities in wealth would endanger liberty.
B)rejection of the concept of social hierarchy expressed in the English class structure.
C)uneasiness over the extravagance and manners of the upper class.
D)alarm at the corrupt workings of English politics.
English and American politics differed in all of the following ways EXCEPT that
A)unlike England, most colonies had unicameral legislatures.
B)the electorate in America encompassed a much larger proportion of white, adult males than did England's electorate.
C)representation was apportioned more fairly and directly in America.
D)the royal governor lacked the patronage resources of English monarchs and their ministers.
British administration of its empire in America was impaired by all of the following difficulties EXCEPT that
A)the Board of Trade was only an advisory body with no real power.
B)real authority over the colonies was scattered among an array of agencies, none of which paid much attention to American affairs.
C)many British officials in America were dishonest, indifferent, and incompetent.
D)Parliament intervened constantly in colonial affairs, often battling with the monarchy over authority and jurisdiction.
Despite any reservations about English society, most colonials liked being English because
A)the English government left them alone, giving them the best of being both English and a colonial.
B)the English government assisted them in finding alternative markets for their goods.
C)the English government assisted in the creation of domestic industries.
D)All these answers are correct.
The Seven Years' War pitted Britain against France in a struggle to control what region of North America?
The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Britain title to
A)all French claims west of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida.
B)all French claims east of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida.
C)all French claims east of the Mississippi, New Orleans, and the French sugar islands of the West Indies.
D)all French claims in North America.
Regarding consequences of the Seven Years' War that led to the rift between the colonies and England, all the following are correctly stated EXCEPT that
A)the French and Indian threats were removed, so the British government felt they had no need to keep troops in the colonies.
B)the British government was deeply in debt.
C)British imperial officials were determined to centralize and extend British rule over the colonies in their greatly expanded empire.
D)both the Americans and the British came out of the war with very different expectations about the future of their relationship.
After the Seven Years' War, Britain kept several thousand troops in the colonies for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)to enforce the Proclamation of 1763 by providing protection to colonials settling west of the Appalachians.
B)to prevent France from trying to regain its lost territory.
C)to manage the new and uneasy relations with the Indians, as in the case of Pontiac's Rebellion.
D)to encourage American acceptance of Grenville's new measures.
Grenville believed his taxation demands were reasonable for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A)Britain's national debt had doubled between 1754 and 1764.
B)the colonial customs service was paying out four times the amount in salaries than they were receiving in revenue.
C)the English had been paying a tax similar to the one created by the Stamp Act for nearly a century.
D)an earlier tax on molasses had succeeded in forcing the colonists to stop buying molasses from the French and the Dutch.
Americans insisted that they be taxed by their own assemblies, because they held to the dictum of John Locke,
A)that government governs best which governs least.
B)that all men are created equal.
C)that property guarantees liberty.
D)no taxation without representation.
The Sons of Liberty
A)consisted mostly of poor artisans, apprentices and dockworkers.
B)supported the destruction of the home of Thomas Hutchinson, the unpopular lieutenant governor of Massachusetts.
C)successfully convinced most of the stamp distributors to resign.
D)All these answers are correct.
In resisting the Stamp Act, Americans affirmed all of the following EXCEPT
A)their general mistrust of power
.B)their particular right to trial by jury.
C)their belief in virtual representation.
D)their belief in taxation only by their elected representatives.
Which of the following British leaders actually supported the colonists' objections to taxation by Parliament?
Parliament repealed all of the Townshend duties except the tax on tea, because
A)British businesses suffered from reduced American consumption of British imports.
B)American producers of raw materials suffered from lower prices on the world market.
C)of rioting in America, which prevented collection of the duties.
D)Parliament decided temporarily to yield to American views.
Townshend was determined to curb the power of the American assemblies. To set a bold example, he singled out for punishment the New York legislature, which refused to comply with the
The Tea Act
A)significantly raised the price of tea in the colonies.
B)was passed in response to the Boston Tea Party.
C)gave the East India Company a monopoly on supplying tea to the colonies.
D)led to the passage of a bill requiring any colonist accused of a crime against the British Crown to be tried in England rather than in the colonies.
The First Continental Congress in late 1774
A)renounced American allegiance to George III, and established a Continental Army.
B)denied Parliament's right to tax and legislate for the colonies (while acknowledging its authority to regulate their trade), and set up a trade boycott.
C)denied that Parliament had any authority at all in America, but took a collective oath of allegiance reaffirming loyalty to George III.
D)denied that Parliament or George III had any authority in America, and urged colonial legislatures to seize power from crown officials.
Colonial southern conservatives feared that the removal of the British government would cause
A)an attempt by the French to regain the land it had lost in the Seven Years' War
.B)an uprising by the slave population.
C)disputes over land claims, sectional tensions, and religious differences.
D)an attack on the colonies by a united Indian population.
In Common Sense, Thomas Paine argues all the following EXCEPT that
A)Parliament had deliberately and wickedly brought about all of America's misfortunes.
B)Britain displayed no parental affection toward the colonies, and instead preyed upon their wealth and liberties.
C)monarchy was a foolish and dangerous form of government.
D)nature had destined America for independence.
The chapter introduction tells the story of the Battle of Bunker Hill to make the point that
A)Americans won their revolution by pitting dedicated amateur soldiers against the might of Britain's professional redcoats.
B)initially the war went badly for the Americans, testing their commitment to liberty and independence.
C)a key question in that battle and throughout the war was whether Americans would really fight to win their independence.
D)declaring independence was one thing, but after the Declaration, actually fighting against the authority of one's own king was quite another.
During the first year of the Revolution, American war aims shifted from a desire for redress of grievances to a demand for complete independence. All of the following influenced this shift EXCEPT
A)the impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense.
B)Washington's refusal to command the Continental Army until independence was declared.
C)congressional actions that would be appropriate only to an independent government.
D)British attempts to crush American resistance by force at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill.
The Declaration of Independence based the case for independence on
A)the violations of colonials' "rights as Englishmen."
B)Parliament's infringements on American liberty.
C)George III's infringements on American liberty.
D)the argument that monarchical government violated both reason and the Bible.
What was the most dominant common characteristic among the diverse group of people who remained loyal to Britain?
A)They were devout Christians who believed the Bible commanded obedience to authority.
B)They were old-stock wealthy planters and merchants from the coastal areas whose families had long prospered under British rule.
C)They owed their livelihood and social status to Crown appointments, and thus were unmoved by constitutional arguments.
D)They were fearful of divisions and instability within American society.
Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the newly-created Continental Army for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)his wealth and political connections.
B)that he was young enough to lead a campaign.
C)that he was a southerner.
D)that he was a celebrated veteran of the Seven Years' War.
Most republican leaders wanted
A)a professional military establishment.
B)a large standing army.
C)"citizen-soldiers" to form the backbone of the common defense.
D)to institute a military draft.
After evacuating Boston, the British army took the initiative, launching a successful assault on
A)New York City.
C)the Carolina backcountry.
D)the Jersey shore.
British occupation of New York and Philadelphia
A)strengthened support for the rebellion.
B)made civilians realize the hopelessness of the revolutionary cause.
C)created additional support for the Crown.
D)led to a series of riots.
All of the following describe the American relationship with the French EXCEPT that
A)the French provided secret aid as a way to gain revenge against the British.
B)the French offered an overt alliance in hopes they could regain their lost North American possessions.
C)the Americans sought French aid despite unsettling memories of recently fighting against them.
D)the Americans negotiated a treaty with the British, and then persuaded their French allies to go along.
Which of the following best explains the reason for French involvement in the American Revolution?
A)They expected to be able to regain territory in North America.
B)They sympathized with the republican principles by which the Americans fought.
C)The successful British occupation of Philadelphia convinced them that the Americans were losing and needed help.
D)Hungry for revenge, they feared the Americans would reconcile with Britain, their historic enemy.
The Continental Army
A)primarily consisted of respectable propertied farmers and artisans by 1777.
B)consistently received sufficient food and supplies from Congress.
C)mutinied in 1781 and marched on Philadelphia, demanding better food and clothing as well as back pay.
D)gained discipline through the continued efforts of their American officers.
The war for independence had what impact on most Native Americans?
A)It changed little about their lives.
B)Their loyalty to the British caused a further deterioration in their status in American society.
C)Their loyalty to the American cause improved their status in the new nation.
D)European and American efforts to force them to choose sides in the conflict generally divided and weakened their economic and political power.
The British believed the war could be won in the South for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A)for the presence of strong loyalist support in the backcountry.
B)for the hatred of New England throughout the region.
C)for the resentment of planters on the seaboard.
D)that the fear of slave rebellions would prevent the rebels from concentrating all of their military force against the British.
What was the role of African Americans in the Revolution?
A)As the war dragged on, blacks—especially northern free blacks—were increasingly welcome to enlist.
B)Americans generally avoided arming blacks, and the British failed to take sufficient advantage of slaves as a potential resource.
C)Though still enslaved, they rallied around the revolutionary rhetoric of freedom, uniformly supporting the American cause.
D)Very few slaves escaped to freedom; those who did found themselves welcomed in the North, the West Indies, or Canada.
Which is the best statement of why the British signed the Peace Treaty granting American independence?
A)The Americans had driven their army out of North America.
B)The French had driven their navy from the high seas.
C)The timing of the occasional American victories led to a global situation where the British needed to salvage the rest of their empire by cutting their American losses.
D)They had sent a commission offering peace on pre-war terms, which the Congress accepted in all particulars except refusing to remain in the empire.
The chapter introduction discusses the dilemma of citizens identifying with state and nation after the Revolution to make the point that
A)no one immediately after the Revolution had a sense of identity or loyalty toward the nation, so it was predictable that the new United States would be politically decentralized.
B)because of the Revolution, most felt a sense of identity and loyalty with the united cause, but political jealousies prevented a strong governmental structure until the crises of the 1780s forced the politicians to act.
C)Americans created one kind of united government with the Declaration of Independence; needing a better union, they overwhelmingly supported the new Constitution.
D)Americans had to experiment to find a way to create a united republic that confronted the realities of separate identities and inequalities.
Which one of the following changes did NOT occur in American law and politics in the aftermath of the Revolution?
A)Antislavery arguments emerged, leading to outright abolition in some states and in the territory north of the Ohio.
B)Most states lowered property-ownership requirements for voting.
C)Americans insisted upon written constitutions.
D)In most states, women were given the right to vote.
The new state constitutions were most concerned with
A)reducing legislative power.
B)reducing executive power.
C)enlarging judicial power.
D)All these answers are correct.
What is the best description of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation?
A)an integrated republic with a decentralized structure of national government
B)thirteen independent state republics loosely joined together under a virtually powerless representative body
C)a political system functioning like a corporate conglomerate with thirteen wholly-owned subsidiary companies
D)thirteen independent nations affiliated in a defensive alliance, like today's NATO
The young United States confronted strong challenges from foreign powers at its borders, including all EXCEPT
A)the Spanish to the south.
B)the French to the west.
C)the British to the north.
D)treaty alliances between native groups and the Spanish.
The new state legislatures included more men
A)of moderate economic means.
B)from the wealthiest classes.
C)from the coastal regions.
D)of greater education.
The Northwest Ordinance
A)allowed for the unlimited spread of slavery in the territories.
B)provided a mechanism for allowing new states to enter the union.
C)considered the rights of the Indians living in the affected territories.
D)allowed for the purchase of land, primarily by small farmers.
In the years after the Revolution, which of the following was NOT true?
A)The number of blacks in slavery declined.
B)Communities of free blacks grew in numbers and health.
C)Most northern states abolished slavery by law, either immediately or gradually.
D)On balance, the Revolution brought few changes to the status of most African Americans.
After the Revolution, women in America gained
A)greater property rights.
B)the right to make wills and contracts.
C)the right to vote.
D)None of these answers is correct.
The most significant reform of the republican campaign against artificial privilege was the
A)disbanding of the Society of Cincinnati.
B)elimination of hereditary offices.
C)dismantling of state-supported churches.
D)widespread support for the temperance movement.
What was the most important result of the uprising of western-Massachusetts debtor farmers led by Daniel Shays?
A)It vindicated republican doctrine that the people could take the law into their own hands.
B)It proved that the revolutionary spirit was still alive.
C)It gave crucial momentum to the growing movement to strengthen the national government.
D)It prompted the Massachusetts legislature to ratify the Constitution.
The most significant division during the Constitutional Convention occurred between
A)eastern and western delegates.
B)slave and free states.
C)Virginia and New Jersey.
D)smaller and larger states.
The Federalist Papers presented strong and convincing arguments in favor of
A)adopting the Constitution of 1787.
B)keeping the Articles of Confederation.
C)creating a unitary form of government.
D)becoming a federated unit within the British empire.
In the debates over ratification, a major fear of the Anti-Federalists was that
A)the most powerful groups in society would dominate, and eventually rule in a corrupt and arbitrary fashion.
B)the common people would have too much control over the government.
C)elected officials would be too narrowly and directly concerned with the interests of their own constituents, rather than the nation as a whole.
D)poorer groups were favored over the more substantial citizens in society.
Ratification of the Constitution completed the second declaration of independence, but it required Americans to give up some of their long-cherished republican beliefs, like the view that
A)civic virtue rather than self-interest would sustain popular liberty.
B)the United States should stay out of the affairs of Europe.
C)the national government needed to act as an impartial umpire in disputes between the various interests in the state.
D)a large republic was better suited to American conditions than a confederation of small republics.
The chapter introduction tells the story of General John Neville's efforts to enforce the federal Whiskey Tax in the frontier district of Western Pennsylvania to make the point that
A)since the time of the Revolution, Americans refused to recognize that any government had the legitimate power to tax them.
B)Americans living in the West would not tolerate the inequalities of wealth and status that Neville represented.
C)differences between Americans living in semisubsistence and commercial economies would frustrate efforts of the new government to unite the nation.
D)Federalists, like Neville, trampled on the individual liberty of frontier farmers for the purpose of enriching themselves.
Each of the following was true about American society in 1790 EXCEPT that
A)the free black population made up a larger percentage of the African American population than it would at any other time before the Civil War.
B)almost half of white Americans were under 16 years old.
C)almost no whites lived in the area north of the Ohio River, in part because of the Indians of the Miami Confederacy.
D)the white population was doubling every 22 years, mostly because of the enormous influx of immigrants.
A family's work in a semisubsistence economy
A)remained predominantly the responsibility of the men of the family.
B)included the making of such articles as soap, candles, and clothing.
C)isolated the family from the rest of the community.
D)included trade based primarily on cash purchases from local merchants.
A fundamental division between two kinds of Americans helps explain how they felt about the Constitution and what party they identified with. This division was between
A)semisubsistence farmers, and those tied to a commercial economy.
B)mainstream religious groups, and those professing dissenting faiths.
C)northern and southern states and territories.
D)eastern states and western territories.
Which of the following does NOT accurately complete the statement? The first political parties arose
A)despite the fundamental hostility to the idea of parties among political leaders.
B)because of opposition to Hamilton's programs.
C)in an atmosphere where each party thought the other was out to subvert the republic.
D)after John Adams became president.
How did foreign policy issues accelerate the emergence of domestic political parties?
A)The French intruded with money and advice to set up a friendly faction within the United States government.
B)Divided over whether or not to continue to support the French Revolution, Federalists and Republicans came to suspect the worst intentions of the other, and organized against each other.
C)Pinckney's Treaty so blatantly met the interests of the commercial areas against the interests of the semisubsistence sector that the leaders of agrarian America rallied around the treaty fight and founded a party.
D)With both sides violating American neutral rights, the party that exploited American anger and fought for American rights was able to win the election of 1800.
Jefferson's Republican Party
A)appealed to workers in cities and others tied to the commercial economy.
B)sought to overturn the federal system and restore a unitary central government.
C)appealed to fears of commerce and urbanization.
D)articulated a conceptual framework that understood both the party in power and the loyal opposition as legitimate.
The Sedition Act forced Republicans to develop a broader conception of
A)the power of the federal government.
B)freedom of religion.
C)freedom of assembly.
D)freedom of the press.
In its years in power, the Federalist party
A)promoted the geographic expansion of the U.S.
B)promoted democracy by appealing to the people.
C)made the Constitution work to achieve national power and stability.
D)was responsible for the breakdown of national unity and the rise of special interests.
According to the doctrine established in the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison,
A)the high court could rule on the constitutionality of federal laws.
B)the high court could compel public officials to perform their duties.
C)the executive branch must defer to the rulings of the legislative branch.
D)the judicial branch should defer to the wishes of the legislative branch.
Which of the following does NOT accurately state a principle that Jefferson espoused?
A)People may be trusted to make political choices based on correct principles.
B)Radical change is periodically necessary to make sure that equality and democracy continue to be extended to all men and women of all races and faiths.
C)Human reason is the powerful tool that will unlock the secrets of nature and improve human society.
D)The life of the independent farmer in a free market is an economically preferable and morally superior social condition.
The Louisiana Purchase was significant for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A)Jefferson's pragmatism caused him to overlook his doubts about the constitutionality of the purchase.
B)it illustrated Jefferson's enthusiastic interest in the West.
C)it rekindled the American alliance with France.
D)it secured western access to the sea.
What larger social pattern helps explain the clashes between whites and Indians and, more specifically, their resort to both religious renewal movements and abusive consumption of increased quantities of alcohol?
A)Neither tribal villages nor backcountry villages felt any cultural or economic need for the other.
B)Traditional cultural systems were breaking down, creating great cultural stress.
C)Birth rates in both groups were rising sharply, imposing great pressures on the land.
D)Both groups had abandoned their religious roots and rejected calls to return to traditional beliefs.
The American declaration of war against Britain in 1812 occurred because
A)Americans were outraged by the violation of neutral rights.
B)representatives from coastal regions demanded retribution for the loss of American ships.
C)many members of Congress felt the British continued to view Americans as colonials and that the nation's independence hung in the balance.
D)All these answers are correct.
During the War of 1812,
A)Andrew Jackson became a national hero with his victory at the Battle of New Orleans.
B)the Americans launched a successful invasion of Canada.
C)Tecumseh saw his great chance to win American favor by allying with the United States against the British.
D)the British failed in their attacks against Washington D.C., Baltimore, and New Orleans.
The Jeffersonian era demonstrates a great irony, in that
A)a party that rose as an opposition movement won the support of most Americans because of its foreign policies.
B)Jefferson's policies opened the West with a view to creating an "empire of liberty" based primarily on agriculture, but settlement would take place under the leadership of nationalistic and commercially-oriented Republicans who faced very different problems and challenges.
C)Jefferson and Madison, whose "great collaboration" had undergirded much of the early history of the American republic, came to disagree fundamentally over how that republic should be governed.
D)The Jeffersonian vision of a decentralized republic of independent farmers was undermined and eventually buried by Jefferson's exercise of vigorous national leadership and the consequences of "Mr. Madison's War."
The Monroe Doctrine
A)proclaimed that the U.S. would be a continental nation.
B)warned Europe not to interfere in the Americas.
C)guaranteed the independence of Spain's former colonies.
D)laid claims to the Oregon Country.
The Missouri crisis
A)erupted over rival fur trappers' activities along the upper Missouri River.
B)was the first great sectional crisis in American history.
C)was ended by the panic of 1819.
D)led to the abolition of slavery in the territories.
The story of John Burrows makes the point that
A)merchants in cities had a substantial advantage over merchants in more remote areas.
B)potato farming was a risky business in the early nineteenth century.
C)a market economy required efficient communications, as well as rapid methods of transporting goods.
D)a market economy could not function based on water transportation alone.
The Erie Canal
A)was made financially feasible by the development of the steamboat.
B)connected the Hudson and Ohio rivers.
C)never repaid the original public investment, but stimulated migration and economic growth.
D)raised New York City to commercial dominance and stimulated canal construction by other cities and states.
Taken as a body of legal doctrine, the rulings of the Marshall Court created a climate of business confidence by
A)enlarging federal power at the expense of the states.
B)expanding individual economic rights by limiting government's role in stimulating the economy.
C)protecting minority groups against the abuse of power by majorities.
D)protecting property and contract rights while limiting state interference in business affairs.
Corporations were an advantageous form for an expanding economy for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
A)contracts with state governments could be later altered by the state legislature.
B)they continued beyond the lives of the individuals who created them.
C)they provided a way to pool investors' resources to raise capital for large-scale projects.
D)None of these is correct, as all are reasons corporations were advantageous.
Europeans especially noted what tendency in American life?
A)There was an emphasis on motion and speed that pervaded every aspect of life, even eating.
B)There was a tendency for native-born Americans to stay east of the Appalachians, while immigrants settled in the new western lands.
C)Americans tended to be rooted to a particular place, despite geographic mobility.
D)Americans tended to be religious and other-worldly, despite rapid economic growth.
The factory system began in which industry?
Factory workers had a difficult time adjusting to
A)the wages of factory work.
B)the disciplined work routine.
C)working alongside women.
D)All these answers are correct.
The national market economy created a society that was more differentiated and specialized, which, in turn, led to
A)specialized labor unions that grew most rapidly in the depression of the late 1830s.
B)an increased pride in craftsmanship that became more important than just sheer productivity.
C)greater extremes of wealth, with those at the top controlling a greater share.
D)a class of newly rich, that mostly came from lower-class farm-family backgrounds.
Economic specialization meant that women
A)made more of their families' clothes than ever before.
B)began buying manufactured cloth rather than making their own.
C)began doing more agricultural work to compensate for the loss of their traditional duties within the home.
D)began having more babies to compensate for the loss of their traditional duties within the home.
That Americans accepted social mobility, materialism, and other values of a market economy can be seen in an emerging middle class
A)drawn largely from those engaged in the mechanical trades.
B)who built neighborhoods near their places of employment in the new urban business districts.
C)whose income and wealth quickly rose to the levels of the very wealthy.
D)whose members judged success and status in terms of consumption and possessions.
The Panic of 1819 was so significant because
A)the nation had never before experienced economic hard times.
B)in reaction, land prices rose to speculative heights.
C)the increasing influence of the market economy meant it affected city and farm dwellers alike.
D)it prompted a frenzy of canal building.
The chapter introduction tells the story of politicians Powhatan Ellis and Franklin Plummer to make the point that
A)people had strange names in the 1800s.
B)these two frontiersmen identified with the common folk and typified the democratic-minded politician in the age of Jackson.
C)appealing to common folk was an effective campaign technique in an age that prized equality and opportunity.
D)Andrew Jackson was a mere figurehead for his political organizers, who created the boisterous and corrupt second party system.
Each of the following was a symbol of the emphasis on social equality in American society EXCEPT
A)the availability of only one class of seats in railroad cars and stagecoaches.
B)the freedom to strike up a conversation with anyone, including strangers.
C)the prevalence of the custom of chewing tobacco and spitting.
D)the presence of women in the same dining facilities as men.
Jackson's popularity was derived not only from defeating the British but also from
A)his respected position as a landed gentleman slaveholder in the antebellum South.
B)the way he "spoiled" the children of wealthy political donors.
C)the "common man" bond he shared with the western people.
D)his opening extensive tracts of Indian lands to white settlement.
In the presidential election of 1824,
A)John Quincy Adams won re-election to a second term.
B)Henry Clay and the Whigs defeated the Democrats.
C)the House of Representatives chose as president the candidate who finished second in Electoral College votes.
D)Calhoun received the vice-presidency in exchange for backing Adams.
Important characteristics of politics in the age of Jackson included all of the following EXCEPT
A)politics as mass entertainment, with hoopla overshadowing issues.
B)expanded political democracy and increased participation in politics.
C)the acceptance of a party system as legitimate.
D)increased government efficiency through a competent civil service.
The Whig party grew out of what other party?
The 1828 presidential election was the beginning of the modern presidential election in all of the following ways EXCEPT that
A)two disciplined national parties actively campaigned for votes.
B)the South determined the outcome of the election.
C)the campaign emphasized personalities over issues.
D)the parties used mass electioneering techniques such as rallies and conventions.
Indications of Cherokee involvement in the national web of market relationships included
A)a new egalitarianism in Cherokee politics.
B)Cherokee involvement in the fur trade.
C)the purchase of slaves and thousands of acres of cotton land by some of the tribe's leaders.
D)All these answers are correct.
A)could vote in most northern states.
B)could testify or serve on juries in most northern states.
C)were allowed to patronize most theaters, hotels, and restaurants in the North.
D)were willing to serve as strikebreakers in many cases.
What statement best describes the attitude of Jacksonian Democrats toward slavery?
A)They strongly defended slavery as a positive good for all sections of the country.
B)They accepted the institution of slavery in the South and opposed rights for free blacks.
C)They quietly encouraged the minority among their ranks who actively pressed for the abolition of slavery.
D)They took steps at the state level to upgrade the condition of blacks without trying to abolish the institution.
John C. Calhoun's theory of nullification addressed the problem of how to protect the rights of a minority in an increasingly democratic political system by arguing that
A)the implied powers of the Constitution did not include taxation by tariff.
B)since the United States was a combination of sovereign states, special popular conventions possessed the authority to annul federal laws.
C)since the federal union was formed by the people and not the states, the people could annul federal laws in special elections.
D)states' rights listed in the Constitution required states to check and balance the power of the president.
Which of the following concerning the Bank of the United States is true?
A)It was the key issue in the 1824 presidential campaign (among Jackson, Clay, Adams, and Crawford) that was decided by the House of Representatives.
B)In the 1820s and 1830s it was mismanaged, unresponsive to the nation's needs, and unsuccessful in stabilizing the currency.
C)Andrew Jackson hated it and vetoed a bill to recharter it because he thought it undemocratic and corrupt.
D)The Supreme Court ruled that a national bank was unconstitutional.
Shortly after he took office, Martin Van Buren ran into trouble because of
A)a business panic that became a lingering depression.
B)a diplomatic crisis with Great Britain that the Whigs exploited for partisan purposes.
C)the scandalous conduct and deadly consequences of the Trail of Tears.
In the Jacksonian party system
A)the Whigs generally supported an active government, the Democrats a limited government.
B)the Democrats generally supported an active government, the Whigs a limited government.
C)neither party believed moral questions should be injected into politics.
D)both parties promoted the market and commercialization.