Cognitive Psych Exam 3 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by mckennachannell
6,603 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

According to prototype theory, what is the relationship between an object and a category to which it belongs? a) An object belongs to a category if it satisfies the mental definition of the category.

b) An object belongs to a category if it is similar to a representation of the typical features of category members.

c) An object belongs to a category if it is linked to the category in a semantic network.

d) An object belongs to a category if it has all of the necessary features for the category.

B

2

Ludwig Wittgenstein pointed out that many games share characteristics with each other, but it is hard to find characteristics that all games have. For example, many games involve competition, but some games (peek-a-boo) do not. Influenced by this idea, Elearnor Rosch argued that human categories have a _____ structure.

a) network

b) hierarchical

c) exemplar

d) family resemblance

D

3

The misinformation effect refers to the fact that:

a) Witnesses to a crime tend to make errors that are consistent with their preconceptions about what crimes are like.

b) Misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change a person's memory for the event.

c) If a video contains a mixture of accurate and misleading information about a crime, memories of the misleading information will usually last longer than memories for the accurate information.

d) If a video contains a mixture of accurate and misleading information about a crime, people tend to form memories that combine both types of information into a single coherent narrative.

B

4

Which of the following best describes the effects of mental imagery on memory for facts?

a) Creating a mental image that is related to a fact enhances memory for the fact, AND creating a bizarre image is even more effective at enhancing memory.

b) Creating a mental image that is related to a fact enhances memory for the fact, BUT creating a bizarre image is less effective than creating a meaningful image.

c) Creating a mental image that is related to a fact enhances memory for the fact, AND creating a bizarre image is also effective, but not more effective at enhancing memory.

d) Creating a mental image that is related to a fact enhances memory for the fact, AND creating a bizarre image tends to cause strong but distorted (inaccurate) memories.

C

5

A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that ....

a) rehearsal cannot account for flashbulb memories.

b) experiences that cause strong emotions are less likely to be remembered accurately.

c) the extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate.

d) flashbulb memories are permanent and resist forgetting

C

6

Based on what has been learned about bias in eyewitness testimony, what is the best method for a witness to identify a suspect? ("Best method" means fewest mistaken identifications with most correct identifications.)

a) a line-up (the suspect is placed in a group of other similar-looking men or women; the group is presented to the witness)

b) aa photo line-up (a photo of the suspect is placed in a group with photos of other similar-looking men or women; the group of photos is presented to the witness)

c) show-up (only the one suspect is shown to the witness)

d) a sequential show-up (the suspect is placed in a group of other similar-looking men or women; the group is presented one at a time to the witness - Goldstein calls this a "sequential presentation" or a "sequential lineup.")

D

7

What is the misinformation effect in eyewitness memory?

a) If the witness has erroneous preconceptions about a criminal event, these preconceptions can bias the witness's memory for the event if it actually occurs.

b) Witnesses tend to believe that dramatic events are more likely to occur than they really do occur in real life.

c) False information that is given to the witness after the criminal event can become part of the witness's memory for the criminal event.

d) The police assume that eyewitness accounts are true even when the witnesses turn out to have low reliability

C

8

The main difference between the prototype theory of categorization and the exemplar theory of categorization is ....

a) the prototype theory claims that categorizations are based on rules that define category membership; the exemplar theory claims that categorizations are based on family resemblances.

b) the prototype theory claims that categorizations are based on similarity to a prototype (an abstract representation of a typical category member); the exemplar theory claims that categorizations are based on similarity to examples of category members that are retrieved from memory.

c) the prototype theory claims that categorizations are based on similarity to the first learned example of a category member; the exemplar theory claims that categorizations are based on similarity to all examples of category members that have previously been encountered.

d) the prototype theory claims that categorizations are based on similarity to a basic level object; the exemplar theory claims that categorizations are based on similarity to superordinate level objects

B

9

Which of the following would be a basic level category for a typical American?

a) "CAR"

b) "VEHICLE"

c) "SPORTS CAR"

d) "TRANSPORTATION"

A

10

According to Rosch's theory of categorization, why do people typically categorize objects at the basic level rather than at a superordinate level? For example, suppose that you enter an office and see the object displayed in Figure 4. According to Rosch, a typical American would identify this objects as a "CHAIR" as opposed to identifying it as "FURNITURE." What is the reason for this according to Rosch's theory of basic level categories?

a) The word "CHAIR" is used more often in common speech. Therefore the "CHAIR" concept has been primed more often than the "FURNITURE" concept.

b) Most people have seen more examples of chairs than examples of furniture. Therefore the "CHAIR" concept has been primed more often than the "FURNITURE" concept.

c) The object in the image has been associated more often with the word "CHAIR" in the typical American's experience than with the word "FURNITURE." Therefore the concept of a "CHAIR" has more retrieval cues than the concept of "FURNITURE."

d) The categorization as a "CHAIR" is more informative than a categorization as "FURNITURE" because different chairs usually share many features whereas different pieces of furniture often have few features in common.

D

11

In Shepard and Metzler's mental rotation experiment, subjects were asked to decide whether two figures were identical in shape. For example, Figure 5 shows two figures that are actually identical in shape. The experiment measured the response time to say "yes" or "no" depending on whether the figures were actually identical. From a theoretical standpoint, what was the most important finding of their experiment?

a) The "yes" responses could be primed with a related concept like "same" or "iso".

b) Response time for "yes" responses was faster when subjects imagined a similar figure prior to viewing the actual figures.

c) Response time for "yes" responses was a linear function (straight-line function) of the angle of rotation that was needed to bring the two figures into congruence.

d) Response time increased as the complexity of the figures increased

C

12

Imagining the letter H can prime the perception of the letter H.

a) True

b) False

A

13

____ is an average representation of a category.

a. An exemplar
b. A unit
c. A prototype
d. A component

C

14

In spreading activation models of memory, concepts are represented as

a. Neurons
b. Targets
c. Associations
d. Nodes

D

15

For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for

a. adolescence and early adulthood
b. early adulthood and middle age
c. childhood and middle age
d. childhood and adolescence

A

16

A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that

a. people's confidence in a memory predicts its accuracy (high confidence = high accuracy)
b. flashbulb memories are permanent and resist forgetting
c. rehearsal cannot account for flashbulb memories
d. extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate

D

17

John is participating in an experiment in which he watches a video of a car crash. In the video a car runs a stop sign and hits another car in the intersection. After he finishes watching the video, the experimenter asks John a series of questions about the video, including whether he saw the car run the yield sign. Later on, John now erroneously remembers having seen a yield sign in the video when it was actually a stop sign. This is an example of

a. Misinformation effect
b. Personal experience
c. Flashbulb memory
d. Schema

A

18

Which of the following represents a basic level item?

a. musical instrument

b. guitar

c. electric guitar

d. Paul McCartney's electric guitar

B

19

In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants "remembered" some things, like books, that weren't actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of _____ on memory.

a. schemas

b. scripts

c. confabulation

d. bias

A

20

Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants

a. remember more details about the event.

b. make more errors in their recollections.

c. report less confidence about their recollections.

d. report less vivid recollections of the event.

B

21

The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the

a. narrative rehearsal hypothesis.

b. life-narrative hypothesis.

c. cognitive hypothesis.

d. reminiscence hypothesis

A

22

A script is a type of schema that also includes knowledge of

a. a sequence of actions.

b. what is involved in a particular experience.

c. information stored in both semantic and episodic memory.

d. items appropriate to a particular setting.

A

23

The misinformation effect occurs when a person's memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented

a. before the event.

b. after the event.

c. during the event.

d. all of the above

B

24

Stany and Johnson’s "weapons focus" experiment, investigating memory for crime scenes, found that

a. the presence of a weapon enhances memory for all parts of the event.

b. the presence of a weapon has no effect on memory for the event.

c. the threat of a weapon causes people to focus their attention away from the weapon itself.

d. the presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.

D

25

Not all of the members of everyday categories have the same features. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack the feature of scales, yet they are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the _______ approach to categorization.

a. prototype

b. definitional

c. exemplar

d. family resemblance

B

26

The prototype approach to categorization states that a standard representation of a category is based on

a. the definition of the category.

b. a universal set of category members.

c. a defined set of category members.

d. category members that have been encountered in the past.

D

27

Items high on prototypicality have ____ family resemblances.

a. no

b. moderate

c. weak

d. strong

D

28

_______ are actual members of a category that a person has encountered in the past.

a. Icons

b. Units

c. Prototypes

d. Exemplars

D

29

The semantic network model predicts that the time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept should be determined by

a. the amount of information contained in each concept.

b. the distance that must be traveled through the network.

c. the typicality of the information contained in each concept.

d. the representativeness of the information contained in each concept.

B

30

The activity that represents a particular object is established in a connectionist network through a process of learning that involves

a. adjusting the weights of inhibitory and excitatory connections between units.

b. a process of trial and error.

c. comparing the object to objects in other categories.

d. adjusting the length of the links that connect the nodes in the circuit

A

31

If a system has the property of graceful degradation, this means that

a. it loses information at a very slow rate.

b. damage to the system doesn't completely disrupt its operation.

c. it is either functioning at 100 percent, or it is not functioning at all.

d. it can be set to operate at "low efficiency" or "high efficiency" depending on the demand of the current task.

B

32

In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to

a. separate a sentence into individual words.

b. decide which meaning of an ambiguous sentence is correct in a specific situation.

c. identify words that are contained in sentences.

d. decide whether a string of letters is a word or a non-word.

D

33

Extrapolating from the cultural life script hypothesis, which of the following events would be easiest to recall?

a. Retiring from work at age 40

b. Marrying at age 60

c. Graduating from college at age 22

d. Having a child at age 45

C

34

Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?

a. It is vivid memory for emotional events.

b. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event.

c. It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.

d. It is vivid, highly accurate memory for emotional events.

C

35

Schrauf and Rubin's "two groups of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. These results support the

a. cognitive hypothesis.
b. self-image hypothesis.
c. narrative rehearsal hypothesis.
d. autobiographical hypothesis.

A

36

Your text argues that the proper procedure for measuring the accuracy of flashbulb memories is

a. source monitoring.
b. scripting.
c. repeated recall.
d. pre-cueing.

C

37

A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that

a. rehearsal cannot account for them.
b. people's confidence in a memory predicts its accuracy (high confidence = high accuracy).
c. extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate.
d. they are permanent and resist forgetting.

C

38

Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants

a. remember more details about the event.
b. make more errors in their recollections.
c. report less confidence about their recollections.
d. report less vivid recollections of the event.

B

39

Your text describes two experiments that measured people's memory for what they were doing when they heard about the terrorist attack on 9/11. Results of these experiments show that participants

a. believed that their memories for the attack remained accurate over a 52-week period.
b. displayed memory for this flashbulb event that declined with time.
c. reported less vivid memories of 9/11 as time passed.
d. both believed their memories for the attack were accurate over a 52-week period and displayed memory for the flashbulb event that declined with time.

D

40

The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the

a. narrative rehearsal hypothesis.
b. cognitive hypothesis.
c. life-narrative hypothesis.
d. reminiscence hypothesis.

A

41

According to the _____ approach to memory, what people report as memories is based on what actually happened plus additional factors such as other knowledge, experiences, and expectations.

a. event-specific
b. source
c. constructive
d. misinformation

C

42

The "telephone game" is often played by children. One child creates a story and whispers it to a second child, who does the same to a third child, and so on. When the last child recites the story to the group, his or her reproduction of the story is generally shorter than the original and contains many omissions and inaccuracies. This game shows how memory is a ______ process.

a. life-narrative
b. narrative-rehearsal
c. consequentiality based
d. constructive

D

43

In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment, participants' reproductions contained inaccuracies based on

a. narrative rehearsal.
b. source misattributions.
c. cultural expectations.
d. shallow processing.

C

44

Bartlett's experiment in which English participants were asked to recall the "War of the Ghosts" story that was taken from the French Indian culture illustrated the

a. misinformation effect.
b. familiarity effect.
c. constructive nature of memory.
d. reminiscence bump.

C

45

The repeated reproduction technique used in memory studies involves

a. the same participants remembering some information at longer and longer intervals after learning the information.
b. different groups of participants remembering some information across different periods of time after learning the information.
c. the same participants remembering some information for as many trials as it takes to recall all of the information correctly.
d. the same participants recalling some information many times but, each time, receiving different retrieval cues to assist their recall.

A

46

Wei has allergy symptoms. He has gone to his regular doctor and an allergy specialist, but he wasn't given a prescription by either doctor. Instead, he was advised to buy any over-the-counter medicine. While he was in the specialist's waiting area, he read a magazine where he saw three ads for an allergy medicine called SneezeLess. A week later, in a drug store, Wei says to his brother, "My doctor says SneezeLess works great. I'll buy that one." Wei and his doctor never discussed SneezeLess. Wei has fallen victim to which of the following errors?

a. MPI
b. Recovered memory
c. Schema confusion
d. Source monitoring

D

47

___ occurs when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated or necessarily implied by the sentence.

a. Observer perspective
b. Pragmatic inference
c. Prospective memory
d. Automatic narrative

B

48

Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make her some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen

a. source memory.
b. episodic memory.
c. schema.
d. scan technique.

C

49

In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants "remembered" some things, like books, that weren't actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of _____ on memory.

a. schemas
b. scripts
c. confabulation
d. bias

A

50

A script is a type of schema that also includes knowledge of

a. a sequence of actions.
b. what is involved in a particular experience.
c. information stored in both semantic and episodic memory.
d. items appropriate to a particular setting.

A

51

Jackie went to the grocery store to pick up yogurt, bread, and apples. First, she picked up a hand basket for carrying her groceries, and then she searched the store. After finding what she needed, she stood in a check-out line. Then, the cashier put her items in a plastic bag, and soon after, Jackie left the store. As readers of this event, we understand that Jackie paid for the groceries, even though it wasn't mentioned, because we are relying on a grocery store _____ that is stored in _______ long-term memory.

a. narrative; semantic
b. script; semantic
c. narrative; episodic
d. script; episodic

B

52

In the "sleep list" false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of

a. constructive memory processes.
b. verbatim recall.
c. the effect of scripts.
d. none of these

A

53

Your text's discussion of false memories leads to the conclusion that false memories

a. are a natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system.
b. occur for details but not for entire events.
c. occur in laboratory settings but do not occur in real-world circumstances.
d. do not occur for all people but rather are experienced by suggestible or inattentive people.

A

54

The misinformation effect does not occur when people are told explicitly that the postevent information may be incorrect.

a. True
b. False

B

55

Loftus and Palmer's "car-crash slides" experiment described in the text shows how a seemingly minor word change can produce a change in a person's memory report. In this study, the MPI was (were) the word(s)

a. "fast."
b. "smashed."
c. "miles per hour."
d. "car crash."

B

56

The memory-trace replacement hypothesis states that the misinformation effect occurs because

a. MPI impairs or replaces memories formed during the original experiencing of an event.
b. MPI cues the rememberer that an error in memory is occurring.
c. MPI fills in the gaps in the original memory where it lacked detail.
d. the original memory for an event decays over time, leaving room for MPI to infiltrate the memory later.

A

57

The misinformation effect can be explained by

a. the memory-trace replacement hypothesis.
b. retroactive interference.
c. source monitoring.
d. all of these

D

58

___ occurs when more recent learning impairs memory for something that happened further back in the past.

a. Reminiscent memory
b. Pragmatic inference
c. Feature integration
d. Retroactive interference

D

59

Kieran found that studying for his Spanish exam made it more difficult to remember some of the vocabulary words he had just studied for his French exam earlier in the day. This is an example of

a. retroactive interference.
b. a life-narrative confusion.
c. memory-trace replacement.
d. a simultaneous presentation effect.

A

60

In Lindsay's "misinformation effect" experiment, participants saw a sequence of slides showing a maintenance man stealing money and a computer. This slide presentation included narration by a female speaker who described what was happening in the slides as they were shown. Results showed that the misinformation effect was greatest when MPI presentation was

a. visual.
b. auditory, regardless of the gender of the speaker.
c. auditory from a female speaker.
d. auditory from a male speaker.

C

61

Lindsay's misinformation effect experiment, in which participants were given a memory test about a sequence of slides showing a maintenance man stealing money and a computer, showed that participants are influenced by MPI

a. if they believe the postevent information is correct.
b. only if the MPI is presented immediately after viewing the event.
c. even if they are told to ignore the postevent information.
d. if the MPI is consistent with social stereotypes.

C

62

Research on eyewitness testimony has shown that the more confident the person giving the testimony is of their memories,

a. the more accurate the memories are.
b. the more convincing the testimony is to a jury.
c. the more likely they are to be influenced by a weapons focus.
d. the more accurate the memories are and the more convincing the testimony is to a jury.

B

63

Which statement below is NOT true, based on the results of memory research?

a. Suggestion can create false memories for events that occurred when a person was a young child.
b. Suggestion can create false memories for an event that a person has experienced just recently.
c. Although eyewitness testimony is often faulty, people who have just viewed a videotape of a crime are quite accurate at picking the "perpetrator" from a lineup.
d. Many miscarriages of justice have occurred based on faulty eyewitness testimony.

C

64

Stany and Johnson's "weapons focus" experiment, investigating memory for crime scenes, found that

a. the presence of a weapon enhances memory for all parts of the event.
b. the presence of a weapon has no effect on memory for the event.
c. the threat of a weapon causes people to focus their attention away from the weapon itself.
d. the presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.

D

65

Your text's discussion of eyewitness testimony illustrates that this type of memory is frequently influenced by all of the following EXCEPT

a. failing to elaboratively rehearse these kinds of events due to fear.
b. inattention to relevant information due to the emotional nature of these events.
c. source-monitoring errors due to familiarity.
d. increased confidence due to postevent questioning.

A

66

Research on eyewitness testimony reveals that

a. highly confident eyewitnesses are usually accurate.
b. it is unnecessary to warn an eyewitness that a suspect may or may not be in a lineup.
c. when viewing a lineup, an eyewitness's confidence in her choice of the suspect can be increased by an authority's confirmation of her choice, even when the choice is wrong.
d. all of the above

C

67

Which of the following statements is true of the cognitive interview technique?

a. Police ask witnesses questions and have them rate their confidence level in their recollections.
b. Police offer positive reinforcement to witnesses (e.g., "Good, that makes sense.") when the witnesses give information consistent with what is in the police file.
c. Police allow witnesses to talk with a minimum of interruption from the officer.
d. Police start their interview with simple filler questions to make the witnesses feel comfortable.

C

68

Your text's discussion of instances when people report a memory of being abused or witness abuse after years of having no memory for these events highlights the importance of considering

a. how visualization exercises during therapy may lead to false memories.
b. that there is no test that can accurately discriminate between true and false memories.
c. the specific situation under which a person recalls the past.
d. all of these

D

69

A(n) ____ is a mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions, including memory, reasoning, and using and understanding language.

a. exemplar
b. concept
c. unit
d. prototype

B

70

Which of the following statements is NOT cited in your text as a reason why categories are useful?

a. Categories provide definitions of groups of related objects.
b. Categories help us understand behaviors that we might otherwise find baffling.
c. Categories serve as a valuable tool for making inferences about things that belong to other categories.
d. Categories have been called "pointers to knowledge" because once you know an object's category, you know a lot of general things about it.

A

71

Not all of the members of everyday categories have the same features. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack the feature of scales, yet they are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the _______ approach to categorization.

a. prototype
b. exemplar
c. definitional
d. family resemblance

C

72

The definitional approach to categorization

a. is not well suited for geometrical objects but works for familiar everyday objects.
b. sets definite criteria called family resemblances that all category members must have.
c. doesn't work well for most natural objects like birds, trees, and plants.
d. was proposed to replace the prototype approach.

C

73

The principle illustrated when most people are able to recognize a variety of examples of chairs even though no one category member may have all of the characteristic properties of "chairs" (e.g., most chairs have four legs but not all do) is

a. family resemblance.
b. prototypicality.
c. graded membership.
d. instance theory.

A

74

_____ is an average representation of a category.

a. A prototype
b. An exemplar
c. A unit
d. A component

A

75

The prototype approach to categorization states that a standard representation of a category is based on

a. the definition of the category.
b. a universal set of category members.
c. a defined set of category members.
d. category members that have been encountered in the past.

D

76

Which approach to categorization involves forming a representation based on an average of category members that a person has encountered in the past?

a. Exemplar
b. Network
c. Typicality
d. Prototype

D

77

A task for determining how prototypical an object is would be

a. a fill-in-the-blank task where participants generate paired members within a category.
b. a task where participants rate the extent to which each member represents the category title.
c. a task where participants rate the extent to which category members resemble one another.
d. a fill-in-the-blank task where participants generate the category classification for a list of members.

B

78

Which of the following members would most likely be ranked highest in prototypicality in the "birds" category?

a. Raven
b. Duck
c. Hummingbird
d. Sparrow

D

79

Which of the following is an example of the sentence verification technique?

a. Indicate whether the following statement was previously presented:
An apple is a fruit. YES NO
b. Indicate whether the following statement is true:
An apple is a fruit. YES NO
c. Fill in the blank in the following sentence:
An apple is a(n) ______.
d. Fill in the blank in the following sentence:
A(n) ______ is a fruit.

B

80

According to the typicality effect,

a. objects in a category have a family resemblance to one another.
b. objects that are not typical stand out and so are more easily remembered.
c. items that are high in prototypicality are judged more rapidly as being in a group.
d. we remember typical objects better than non-typical objects.

C

81

When a participant is asked to list examples of the category vegetables, it is most likely that

a. a carrot would be named before eggplant.
b. an eggplant would be named before carrot.
c. a carrot and eggplant would have an equal likelihood of being named first.
d. the order of examples is completely random, varying from participant to participant.

A

82

For the category "fruit," people give a higher typicality rating to "banana" than to "kiwi." Knowing that, we can also reason that

a. the word "fruit" will lead to a larger priming effect for banana than for kiwi.
b. when people are asked to list all the fruits they can think of, kiwi will usually appear on their list before banana.
c. neither kiwi nor banana are likely to be the fruit "closest" to the prototype of the fruit category.
d. people will have a similar number of exemplars for kiwi and banana.

A

83

Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus

a. disrupts the processing of another stimulus.
b. acts as a cue that tells the participant when his or her response was correct.
c. facilitates the response to another stimulus.
d. relates to a prototype.

C

84

Rosch found that participants respond more rapidly in a same-different task when presented with "good" examples of colors such as "red" and "green" than when they are presented with "poor" examples such as "pink" or "light green." The result of this experiment was interpreted as supporting the _____ approach to categorization.

a. exemplar
b. prototype
c. network
d. parallel processing

B

85

If you say that "a Labrador retriever is my idea of a typical dog," you would be using the _____ approach to categorization.

a. exemplar
b. definitional
c. family resemblance
d. prototype

A

86

_______ are actual members of a category that a person has encountered in the past.

a. Icons
b. Prototypes
c. Units
d. Exemplars

D

87

An advantage of the prototype approach over the exemplar approach is that the prototype approach provides a better explanation of the typicality effect.

a. True
b. False

B

88

Which approach to categorization can more easily take into account atypical cases such as flightless birds?

a. Exemplar
b. Prototype
c. Definitional
d. Network

A

89

Research suggests that the _____ approach to categorization works best for small categories (e.g., U.S. presidents).

a. semantic network
b. definitional
c. prototype
d. exemplar

D

90

According to Rosch, the ____ level of categories is the psychologically "privileged" level of category that reflects people's everyday experience.

a. superordinate
b. prototypical
c. basic
d. subordinate

C

91

People playing the parlor game "20 Questions" often use hierarchical organization strategies. One player asks up to 20 yes/no questions to determine the identity of an object another player has selected. The player's questions usually start as general and get more specific as the player approaches a likely guess. Initial questions asked by a player are often one of three questions: "Is it an animal?" "Is it a vegetable?" and "Is it a mineral?" Each of these three questions describes which level of categorization?

a. Typical
b. Basic
c. Subordinate
d. Superordinate

D

92

Which of the following would be in a basic level category?

a. Truck
b. Vehicle
c. Pickup truck
d. Transportation

A

93

According to the text, jumping from _______ categories results in the largest gain in information.

a. superordinate level to basic level
b. basic level to subordinate level
c. subordinate level to basic level
d. basic level to superordinate level

A

94

Rosch and coworkers conducted an experiment in which participants were shown a category label, like car or vehicle, and then, after a brief delay, saw a picture. The participants' task was to indicate as rapidly as possible whether the picture was a member of the category. Their results showed

a. the priming effect was most robust for superordinate level categories.
b. the priming effect was most robust for basic level categories.
c. no measurable priming effect.
d. the priming effect was the same for superordinate and basic level categories.

B

95

Your text describes cross-cultural studies of categorization with U.S. and Itza participants. Given the results of these studies, we know that if asked to name basic level objects for a category, U.S. participants would answer ____ and Itza participants would answer ____.

a. bird; bird
b. bird; sparrow
c. sparrow; bird
d. sparrow; sparrow

B

96

If we were conducting an experiment on the effect knowledge has on categorization, we might compare the results of expert and non-expert groups. Suppose we compare horticulturalists to people with little knowledge about plants. If we asked the groups to name, as specifically as possible, five different plants seen around campus, we would predict that the expert group would primarily label plants on the _____ level, while the non-expert group would primarily label plants on the _____ level.

a. superordinate; subordinate
b. superordinate; basic
c. subordinate; basic
d. basic; subordinate

C

97

The _____ model includes associations between concepts and the property of spreading activation.

a. parallel distributed processing
b. connectionist network
c. neural network
d. semantic network

D

98

Which term below is most closely associated with semantic networks?

a. Distributed processing
b. Cognitive economy
c. Prototype formation
d. Family resemblance

B

99

The semantic network model predicts that the time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept should be determined by

a. the amount of information contained in each concept.
b. the distance that must be traveled through the network.
c. the typicality of the information contained in each concept.
d. the representativeness of the information contained in each concept.

B

100

Which of the following is NOT associated with the semantic network model?

a. Family resemblance
b. Hierarchical organization
c. Cognitive economy
d. Spreading activation

A

101

Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _____ into their network model.

a. spreading activation
b. cognitive economy
c. typicality
d. back propagation

A

102

Spreading activation

a. primes associated concepts.
b. inhibits unrelated concepts.
c. creates new links between associated concepts.
d. weakens the link between unrelated concepts

A

103

Collins and Quillian's semantic network model predicts that the reaction time to verify "a canary is a bird" is _____ the reaction time to verify "an ostrich is a bird."

a. slower than
b. faster than
c. the same as

C

104

Connectionist theory states that a particular object (like a canary) is identified by activity in the specific "canary" output unit of the network.

a. True
b. False

B

105

Connectionist networks are modeled after neural networks in the nervous system and incorporate all of the following features of the nervous system EXCEPT

a. excitatory and inhibitory connections.
b. strength of firing patterns determined by the number and type (excitatory/inhibitory) of inputs.
c. concepts represented by activity in individual nodes.
d. distributed coding.

C

106

One of the key properties of the _____ approach is that a specific concept is represented by activity that is distributed over many units in the network.

a. semantic network
b. hierarchical
c. spreading activation
d. connectionist

D

107

Which of the following is NOT a property of the connectionist approach?

a. It proposes a slow learning process that eventually creates a network capable of handling a wide range of inputs.
b. Connectionist networks respond to being damaged in ways similar to the response that occurs in actual cases of brain damage in humans.
c. Before any learning has occurred in the network, the weights in the network all equal zero.
d. The connectionist system learns to generalize by recognizing that properties of one concept provide information about other, related concepts.

C

108

Learning takes place in a connectionist network through a process of _____ in which an error signal is transmitted from output units towards the input units.

a. graceful degradation
b. error verification
c. spreading activation
d. back propagation

D

109

The process of back propagation is most closely associated with

a. semantic networks.
b. connectionist networks.
c. reasoning about categories.
d. spreading activation.

B

110

The activity that represents a particular object is established in a connectionist network through a process of learning that involves

a. adjusting the weights of inhibitory and excitatory connections between units.
b. a process of trial and error.
c. comparing the object to objects in other categories.
d. adjusting the length of the links that connect the nodes in the circuit.

A

111

The connectionist network has learned the correct pattern for a concept when

a. the connection weights add up to exactly +1.00.
b. the output pattern matches the initial input pattern.
c. the back propagated error signal is zero.
d. the output unit response is greater than zero.

C

112

If a system has the property of graceful degradation, this means that

a. it loses information at a very slow rate.
b. damage to the system doesn't completely disrupt its operation.
c. it is either functioning at 100 percent, or it is not functioning at all.
d. it can be set to operate at "low efficiency" or "high efficiency" depending on the demand of the current task.

B