Which plants were first to grow tall ?
ferns and other seedless vascular plants
how far back to the fossils of forerunners of vascular plants date?
425 million years
what are the derived traits of living vascular plants
dominant sporophytes, roots leaves and sporophyls
List the two groups of seedless vascular plants
list plants included in phylum lycophyta
club mosses, spike mosses, quillworths
list plants in phylum monilophyte
ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns and relatives
do bryophytes form a clade?
what were the ancient lineages of lycophytes like compared to today
small herbaceous plants and large teas
today only small herbaceous plants
when did the seedless vascular plants form the earliest forest
what did these early forests contribute to
carboniferous period 385 million years ago
global cooling, and eventually these forests turned to coal
what does xylem and phoelm do ?
xylem includeds tracheids (tube shaped cells ) that carry water and minerals up the roots
pholoem has cells arranged in tubes that distrubute sugars amino acids and other organic products
What is the life cycle of the fern
meiosis- ( n) (spore dispersal- spore-young gametophyte -mature gametophyte w/ antheridium and archegonium)
fertilization (2n) ( sperm enters egg, zygote - new sporophyte- mature sporophyte - sporangium )
name one milestone in evolution of plants
emergence of sporophylls modified leaves that bear sporangia
structure varies in different plants
ferns-clusters of sporangia called sori
in many lycophytes and gymnosperms-cone like stuctures called strobilli
Most seedless vascular plants are ...
homosporous , a 1 type of sporoganium which produces one type of spore which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte
2 types of spores from megasporangium- megaspores-female gametophyte
Which of the following are the closest algal relatives of land plants?
The relationship between a gametophyte and a sporophyte in a liverwort is like the relationship between
a)a brother and a sister.
b)a grandparent and a grandchild.
c)an uncle and a nephew.
d)a parent and a child.
Stomata are found in every group of land plants except the liverworts. If stomata evolved only once among the bryophytes, this is evidence that
a)liverworts resemble the earliest-evolving plants.
b)liverworts don’t need to exchange gases with the atmosphere.
c)liverworts have lost the ability to make stomata.
d)liverworts are able to fix nitrogen.
e)gametophytes are more important in liverworts.
Which plants have a sporophyte that is nutritionally dependent on the photosynthetic gametophyte?
If you could travel in a time machine to the period of Earth’s history when plants began to appear, you would see which plant evolve after the liverworts?
Which are the most closely related?
a)ferns and horsetails
b)mosses and ferns
c)liverworts and hornworts
d)lycophytes and liverworts
e)All pairs are equally related.