29.3

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1

Which plants were first to grow tall ?

ferns and other seedless vascular plants

2

how far back to the fossils of forerunners of vascular plants date?

425 million years

3

what are the derived traits of living vascular plants

dominant sporophytes, roots leaves and sporophyls

4

List the two groups of seedless vascular plants

lycophytes

monilophytes

5

list plants included in phylum lycophyta

club mosses, spike mosses, quillworths

6

list plants in phylum monilophyte

ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns and relatives

7

do bryophytes form a clade?

no

8

what were the ancient lineages of lycophytes like compared to today

small herbaceous plants and large teas

today only small herbaceous plants

9

when did the seedless vascular plants form the earliest forest

what did these early forests contribute to

carboniferous period 385 million years ago

global cooling, and eventually these forests turned to coal

10

what does xylem and phoelm do ?

xylem includeds tracheids (tube shaped cells ) that carry water and minerals up the roots

pholoem has cells arranged in tubes that distrubute sugars amino acids and other organic products

11

What is the life cycle of the fern

meiosis- ( n) (spore dispersal- spore-young gametophyte -mature gametophyte w/ antheridium and archegonium)

fertilization (2n) ( sperm enters egg, zygote - new sporophyte- mature sporophyte - sporangium )

12

name one milestone in evolution of plants

emergence of sporophylls modified leaves that bear sporangia

structure varies in different plants

ferns-clusters of sporangia called sori

in many lycophytes and gymnosperms-cone like stuctures called strobilli

13

Most seedless vascular plants are ...

homosporous , a 1 type of sporoganium which produces one type of spore which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte

14

Heterosporous

2 types of spores from megasporangium- megaspores-female gametophyte

+microsporangium-microspores-male gametophyte

15

Which of the following are the closest algal relatives of land plants?

a)psilophytes

b)charophytes

c)chrysophytes

d)bacillariophytes

e)rhodophytes

b

16

The relationship between a gametophyte and a sporophyte in a liverwort is like the relationship between

a)a brother and a sister.

b)a grandparent and a grandchild.

c)an uncle and a nephew.

d)a parent and a child.

e)two cousins.

d

17

Stomata are found in every group of land plants except the liverworts. If stomata evolved only once among the bryophytes, this is evidence that

a)liverworts resemble the earliest-evolving plants.

b)liverworts don’t need to exchange gases with the atmosphere.

c)liverworts have lost the ability to make stomata.

d)liverworts are able to fix nitrogen.

e)gametophytes are more important in liverworts.

A

18

Which plants have a sporophyte that is nutritionally dependent on the photosynthetic gametophyte?

a)ferns

b)mosses

c)whisk ferns

d)horsetails

e)angiosperms

b

19

If you could travel in a time machine to the period of Earth’s history when plants began to appear, you would see which plant evolve after the liverworts?

a)mosses

b)ferns

c)hornworts

d)horsetails

e)lycophytes

a

20

Which are the most closely related?

a)ferns and horsetails

b)mosses and ferns

c)liverworts and hornworts

d)lycophytes and liverworts

e)All pairs are equally related.

a