Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking
down large molecules into smaller ones?
Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways?
A) They do not depend on enzymes.
B) They are usually highly spontaneous chemical reactions.
C) They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.
D) They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers.
E) They consume energy to decrease the entropy of the organism and its environment.
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of
A) Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
B) The entropy of the universe is decreasing.
C) The entropy of the universe is constant.
D) Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter.
E) Energy cannot be transferred or transformed.
For living organisms, which of the following is an important
consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
A) The energy content of an organism is constant.
B) The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.
C) The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.
D) Organisms grow by converting energy into organic matter.
E) Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow, resulting in a
decrease in the entropy of an organism. How does this relate to the
second law of thermodynamics?
A) Living organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy must increase with time.
B) Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the organism grows is exactly balanced by an increase in the entropy of the universe.
C) Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics.
D) As a consequence of growing, organisms cause a greater increase in entropy in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth.
E) Living organisms are able to transform energy into entropy.
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
A) free energy of the system.
B) free energy of the universe.
C) entropy of the system.
D) entropy of the universe.
E) enthalpy of the universe.
Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the
second law of thermodynamics?
A) If the entropy of a system increases, there must be a corresponding decrease in the entropy of the universe.
B) If there is an increase in the energy of a system, there must be a corresponding decrease in the energy of the rest of the universe.
C) Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment.
D) Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.
E) Energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Which of the following statements is representative of the second law
A) Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some gain of free energy.
B) Heat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do work.
C) Without an input of energy, organisms would tend toward decreasing entropy.
D) Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.
E) Every energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universe.
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy
within a cell?
A) anabolic reactions
E) catabolic reactions
Biological evolution of life on Earth, from simple prokaryote-like
cells to large, multicellar eukaryotic organisms,
A) has occurred in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics.
B) has caused an increase in the entropy of the planet.
C) has been made possible by expending Earth's energy resources.
D) has occurred in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics, by expending Earth's energy resources and causing an increase in the entropy of the planet.
E) violates the laws of thermodynamics because Earth is a closed system.
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic
A) the muscle contractions of a person mowing grass
B) water rushing over Niagara Falls
C) light flashes emitted by a firefly
D) a molecule of glucose
E) the flight of an insect foraging for food
Which of the following is the smallest closed system?
A) a cell
B) an organism
C) an ecosystem
E) the universe
Which of the following is true of metabolism in its entirety in all
A) Metabolism depends on a constant supply of energy from food.
B) Metabolism depends on an organism's adequate hydration.
C) Metabolism uses all of an organism's resources.
D) Metabolism consists of all the energy transformation reactions in an organism.
E) Metabolism manages the increase of entropy in an organism.
The mathematical expression for the change in free energy of a system
is ΔG =ΔH - TΔS. Which of the following is (are) correct?
A) ΔS is the change in enthalpy, a measure of randomness.
B) ΔH is the change in entropy, the energy available to do work.
C) ΔG is the change in free energy.
D) T is the temperature in degrees Celsius.
A system at chemical equilibrium
A) consumes energy at a steady rate.
B) releases energy at a steady rate.
C) consumes or releases energy, depending on whether it is exergonic or endergonic.
D) has zero kinetic energy.
E) can do no work.
Chemical equilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. Which of the
following could be an example of a reaction at chemical equilibrium in
A) a reaction in which the free energy at equilibrium is higher than the energy content at any point away from equilibrium
B) a chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is just balanced by an opposite entropy change in the cell's surroundings
C) an endergonic reaction in an active metabolic pathway where the energy for that reaction is supplied only by heat from the environment
D) a chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are not being produced or used in any active metabolic pathway
E) no possibility of having chemical equilibrium in any living cell
Which of the following shows the correct changes in thermodynamic
properties for a chemical reaction in which amino acids are linked to
form a protein?
A) +ΔH, +ΔS, +ΔG
B) +ΔH, -ΔS, -ΔG
C) +ΔH, -ΔS, +ΔG
D) -ΔH, -ΔS, +ΔG
E) -ΔH, +ΔS, +ΔG
When glucose monomers are joined together by glycosidic linkages to
form a cellulose polymer, the changes in free energy, total energy,
and entropy are as follows:
A) +ΔG, +ΔH, +ΔS.
B) +ΔG, +ΔH, -ΔS.
C) +ΔG, -ΔH, -ΔS.
D) -ΔG, +ΔH, +ΔS.
E) -ΔG, -ΔH, -ΔS.
A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described as
For the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + Pi, the free energy change is -7.3
kcal/mol under standard conditions (1 M concentration of both
reactants and products). In the cellular environment, however, the
free energy change is about -13 kcal/mol. What can we conclude about
the free energy change for the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi under
A) It is +7.3 kcal/mol.
B) It is less than +7.3 kcal/mol.
C) It is about +13 kcal/mol.
D) It is greater than +13 kcal/mol.
E) The information given is insufficient to deduce the free energy change.
When 10,000 molecules of ATP are hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi in a test
tube, about twice as much heat is liberated as when a cell hydrolyzes
the same amount of ATP. Which of the following is the best explanation
for this observation?
A) Cells are open systems, but a test tube is a closed system.
B) Cells are less efficient at heat production than nonliving systems.
C) The hydrolysis of ATP in a cell produces different chemical products than does the reaction in a test tube.
D) The reaction in cells must be catalyzed by enzymes, but the reaction in a test tube does not need enzymes.
E) Reactant and product concentrations in the test tube are different from those in the cell.
Which of the following statements is true concerning catabolic
A) They combine molecules into more energy-rich molecules.
B) They supply energy, primarily in the form of ATP, for the cell's work.
C) They are endergonic.
D) They are spontaneous and do not need enzyme catalysis.
E) They build up complex molecules such as protein from simpler compounds.
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?
A) a pentose sugar
B) a DNA nucleotide
C) an RNA nucleotide
D) an amino acid with three phosphate groups attached
E) a phospholipid
When ATP releases some energy, it also releases inorganic phosphate.
What purpose does this serve (if any) in the cell?
A) The phosphate is released as an excretory waste.
B) The phosphate can only be used to regenerate more ATP.
C) The phosphate can be added to water and excreted as a liquid.
D) The phosphate may be incorporated into any molecule that contains phosphate.
E) It enters the nucleus to affect gene expression.
What is the difference (if any) between the structure of ATP and the
structure of the precursor of the A nucleotide in RNA?
A) The sugar molecule is different.
B) The nitrogen-containing base is different.
C) The number of phosphates is three instead of one.
D) The number of phosphates is three instead of two.
E) There is no difference.
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical
reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the
B) activation energy.
C) endothermic level.
D) equilibrium point.
E) free-energy content.
Which of the following is true of enzymes?
A) Nonprotein cofactors alter the substrate specificity of enzymes.
B) Enzyme function is increased if the 3-D structure or conformation of an enzyme is altered.
C) Enzyme function is independent of physical and chemical environmental factors such as pH and temperature.
D) Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy barriers.
E) Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by providing activation energy to the substrate.
In order to attach a particular amino acid to the tRNA molecule that
will transport it, an enzyme, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, is
required, along with ATP. Initially, the enzyme has an active site for
ATP and another for the amino acid, but it is not able to attach the
tRNA. What must occur in order for the final attachment to occur?
A) The ATP must first have to attach to the tRNA.
B) The binding of the first two molecules must cause a 3-D change that opens another active site on the enzyme.
C) The ATP must be hydrolyzed to allow the amino acid to bind to the synthetase.
D) The tRNA molecule must have to alter its shape in order to be able to fit into the active site with the other two molecules.
E) The 3' end of the tRNA must have to be cleaved before it can have an attached amino acid.