Human Anatomy and Physiology Exam 4 Flashcards


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1
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Using Figure 11.1, match the following:
1) Which neuron would connect to a muscle?

2) Which neuron would be found in the retina of the eye?

3) Which neuron is a sensory neuron found in a reflex arc?

4) Which neuron is never myelinated?

5) Which neuron is rare?

6) In a reflex arc, which neuron has its cell body inside the spinal cord?

7) Which neuron is common only in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and sensory ganglia of
cranial nerves?

8) Which is by far the most common neuron type?

1) Answer: A

2) Answer: B

3) Answer: C

4) Answer: B

5) Answer: B

6) Answer: A

7) Answer: C

8) Answer: A

2
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Using Figure 11.2, match the following:

9) Ion channel.

10) Synaptic vesicles.

11) Calcium ions.

12) Postsynaptic membrane.

13) Synaptic cleft.

9) Answer: E

10) Answer: C

11) Answer: A

12) Answer: B

13) Answer: D

3

Efferent nerve fibers may be described as motor nerve fibers.

True

4

Cell bodies of sensory neurons may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous
system.

True

5

Myelination of the nerve fibers in the central nervous system is the job of the oligodendrocyte.

True

6

The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.

True

7

Large-diameter nerve fibers conduct impulses much faster than small-diameter fibers.

True

8

If bacteria invaded the CNS tissue, microglia would migrate to the area to engulf and destroy
them.

True

9

Which of the following is not a function of astrocytes?
A) support and brace neurons
B) anchor neurons to blood vessels
C) guide the migration of young neurons, synapse formation, and helping to determine capillary permeability
D) control the chemical environment around neurons
E) provide the defense for the CNS

E) provide the defense for the CNS

10

Which of the choices below describes the ANS?
A) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
B) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
C) sensory neurons that convey information from somatic receptors in the head, body wall, and limbs and from receptors from the special senses of vision, hearing, taste, and smell to the CNS
D) sensory and motor neurons that supply the digestive tract

A) motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

11

What are ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called?
A) ependymal cells
B) Schwann cells
C) oligodendrocytes
D) astrocytes

A) ependymal cells

12

The sheath of Schwann is also called the ________.

neurilemma

13

Which of the following is not characteristic of neurons?
A) They conduct impulses.
B) They have extreme longevity.
C) They are mitotic.
D) They have an exceptionally high metabolic rate.

C) They are mitotic.

14

The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________.
A) axon
B) dendrite
C) neurolemma
D) Schwann cell

A) axon

15
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Using Figure, Match the following:

1) Pons

2) Corpus Callosum

3) Caudate Nucleus

4) Globus Pallidus

5) Thalamus

1) E

2) A

3) B

4) C

5) D

16

Key:

A) Occipital lobe

B) Insula

C) Temporal lobe

D) Parietal lobe

E) Frontal lobe

13) Auditory area

14) Primary sensory cortex

15) Somatic motor cortex

16) Motor speech area

17) Premotor area

18) Visual area

19) Taste (gustatory) area

20) Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning

13) C

14) D

15) E

16) E

17) E

18) A

19) B

20) E

17

Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains whereas memory and language have overlapping domains

True

18

The corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi are visual reflex centers, whereas the inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers.

True

19

Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.

True

20

The adult spinal cord ends between L1 and L2.

True

21

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.

True

22

The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system.

False

23

The arbor vitae refers to ___________.

A) Flocculonodular nodes

B) Cerebellar gray matter

C) The pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum

D) Cerebellar white matter

D) Cerebellar white matter

24

70) The brain stem consists of the ____________.

A) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla

B) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain

C) midbrain, medulla, and pons

D) midbrain only

C) midbrain, medulla, and pons

25

Spinocerebellar tracts _______________.

A) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord.

B) give rise to conscious experience of perception

C) terminate in the spinal cord

D) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

D) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

26

What cells line ventricles of the brain?

A) ependymal cell

B) astrocytes

C) neurons

D) epithelial cells

A) ependymal cell

27

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.

medulla
midbrain
cerebrum
pons

medulla

28

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

A. sympathetic ganglia
B. the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord
C. the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
D. the thalamus

C. the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

29
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Using Figure 13.2,
identify the following components of the reflex arc:

7) Integration center.

8) Sensory neuron.

9) Effector.

10) Motor neuron.

11) Receptor.

7) Answer: E

8) Answer: C

9) Answer: B

10) Answer: D

11) Answer: A

30

17) Tests both upper and lower
motor pathways. The sole of
the foot is stimulated with a
dull instrument.

18) Checks the integrity of the
spinal cord and dorsal rami at
the level of T8 to T12.

19) Produces a rapid withdrawal
of the body part from a
painful stimulus; ipsilateral.

20) Prevents muscle
overstretching and maintains
muscle tone.

21) Produces muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to tension; the contracting muscle
relaxes as its antagonist is activated.

A) Stretch
B) Abdominal
C) Flexor
D) Plantar

E) Golgi Tendon

17) D
18) B
19) C
20) A

21) E

31

Match the following:

26) Controls the outputs of the
cortex and regulates motor
activity.

27) Central pattern generators.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 519; Fig. 13.13

28) Intermediate relay for
incoming and outgoing
neurons.

29) The cerebellum and basal
nuclei.

30) Includes cortical and brain
stem motor areas.

31) The neural machinery of the
spinal cord, including spinal
cord circuits.

A) Projection level
B) Segmental level
C) Precommand level

26) C
27) B
28) A
29) C
30) A
31) B

32

Reciprocal inhibition means that while one sensory nerve is stimulated, another sensory
neuron for synergistic muscles in the same area is inhibited and cannot respond.

False

33

The patellar "knee jerk" reflex is an example of a(n) ________.

crossed-extensor reflex
stretch reflex
extensor thrust reflex
stress reflex

stretch reflex

34

Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?

baroreceptor

35

Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?

segmental

36

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?

The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.

37

A generator potential is the associated sensory neuron must reach threshold

exteroceptors

38

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________

nociceptors

39

Which receptors adapt most slowly?

nociceptors

40

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.

afferent nerves