safety2 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following describes a Beta particle?

A. High speed photon

B. High speed electron

C. High speed proton

D. High speed neutron

high speed electrons

-How can a high speed electron leave the nucleus of an atom? It happens when a neutron splits into its elementary parts - a proton and an electron!

2

Which of the following stages of cell division is considered to be the most radiosensitive?

A. Prophase B. Anaphase C. Telophase D. Metaphase

metaphase

-Radiosensitive means a cell is capable of being injured or destroyed by radiation. The metaphase stage is when cells are most susceptible to radiation effects.

3

Radiation is said to be carcinogenic. What does carcinogenic mean?

A. A cancer producing substance

B. Causes genetic changes

C. The ability to destroy cancer

D. Causes cell death

A. A cancer producing substance

-Radiation is a carcinogen (cancer-causing substance) because it can alter the genetic code on a DNA molecule.

4

The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) unit only applies to which of the following types of radiation?

A. Alpha B. Beta C. X & gamma rays D. Background

C. X & gamma rays

-The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the unit for measuring electromagnetic radiation. The becquerel is the unit for measuring radioactive decay (alpha & beta).

5

Which of following are in the correct order, going from most to least radiosensitive?

A. Epithelial, lymphoid, muscle

B. Lymphoid, muscle, epithelia

C. Lymphoid, epithelial, muscle

D. Muscle, epithelial, lymphoid

C. Lymphoid, epithelial, muscle

-The most radiosensitive cells are undifferentiated and divide rapidly.

6

Where will most of a cell's genetic information be found?

A. Nucleus B. Nucleolus C. Cytoplasm D. Daughter cell

A. Nucleus

-A. Nucleus

7

What is the unit for air kerma?

A. Brem B. Collision kerma C. Roentgen D. Gray

gray

-The unit for air kerma is joule per kilogram (gray, Gy)

8

Which of the following measurements is equal to 1 joule per kilogram?

A. Gray B. Sievert C. RBE D. C/kg

gray

-The Gray corresponds to 1 joule of energy transferred to 1 kilogram of any absorbing material.

9

What is the process of cell division of somatic cells called?

A. Meiosis B. Mitosis C. Synthesis D. Multiplication

mitosis

-Mitosis is the process by which somatic cells duplicate to replace cells and help the body grow. It is made up of four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.

10

Where do the metabolic functions of a cell take place?

A. Nucleus B. Chromosomes C. Cytoplasm D. DNA molecule

Cytoplasm

-Metabolism is chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for the cell's vital activities.

11

When radiation exposure causes hematopoietic death, what is the main reason why the person died?

A. Hemorrhage B. Respiratory distress C. Immune system is destroyed D. Heart failure

-C. Immune system is destroyed

Since the lymphocytes are the cells that are easiest to destroy, the person will die from infection.

12

High-level, whole body radiation exposure, delivered in a period of seconds to minutes, produces a clinical pattern known as what?

A. Mortality irradiation B. Cumulative exposure C. Whole body dose D. Acute radiation syndrome

D. Acute radiation syndrome

-Acute = sudden onset; syndrome = set of symptoms. With whole-body doses over 100 rem, persons may exhibit serious physical symptoms that lead to death.

13

What does genetically significant dose mean?

A. Dose that will cause damage B. Dose that will cause genetic damage C. Dose that will cause a mutation D. Estimated dose received by the population

-D. Estimated dose received by the population

GSD is an estimation of the exposure to the genetic cells of a population from all forms of radiation. It is an attempt to predict the impact of present exposure on future generations.

14

Which of the following affects the rate of decay of a radioactive material?

A. Pressure B. Temperature C. Elevation D. Nothing can affect the rate of decay

d. Nothing can affect the rate of decay

-The disintegration (decay) of radioactive materials is not affected by any outside influences.

15

Which of the following refers to the amount of ionizing radiation energy transferred by any type of radiation to any target material?

A. C/kg B. Gray C. Sievert D. Kerma

gray

-The unit of absorbed dose is 1 J/kg = 1 Gy.

16

Which of the following would describe the shape of a DNA molecule?

A. Elliptical B. Hypocycloidal C. Double helix D. Circular

C. Double helix

-A helix is anything that has a spiral shape. DNA is composed of two long chains that spiral around each other.

17

How can radiation induce cancer in a person?

A. It can alter a cells function B. A mutation can increase cell growth C. It can cause cell death D. Radiation destroys the immune system

B. A mutation can increase cell growth

-Cancer is the rapid growth of a tissue. A change in the DNA molecule can be the reason for this rapid cell division.

18

What is the amount of radiation necessary to produce a noticeable skin reaction called?

A. Soft dose B. Low energy dose C. Erythema dose D. Isodose

C. Erythema dose

-The first noticeable reaction to radiation is when the skin begins to turn red. This reddening of the skin is known as erythema.

19

Stochastic effects of radiation can be defined by which of the following?

A. Cells that survive an initial irradiation but produce a late effect

B. Cells that require a threshold dose before an effect will occur

C. The greater the dose, the greater the biological effect

D. The risk of malignancy is negligible

A. Cells that survive an initial irradiation but produce a late effect

The greater the dose, the greater the chance of a specific late effect. However, the severity of the effect does not increase with an increase in dose. Cancer and genetic defects are examples of stochastic effects.

20

Which of the following factors will affect the quantity as well as the quality of the x-ray beam?

1. kVp
2. HVL
3. SID
A. 1 only B. 2 only C. 2 & 3 only D. 1, 2 & 3

1. kVp
2. HVL
3. SID

increasing HVL and SID will filter out low energy x rays, leaving a higher energy beam with fewer x rays. Increasing kVp increases the probability that more x rays will be produced with more energy.

21

How many matched pairs of chromosomes does a human somatic cell contain?

A. 6 B. 13 C. 23 D. 46

23

-There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in human somatic cells. This is known as the diploid number. This number is reduced to half in genetic cells and is called the haploid number.

22

The radiation interaction with tissue that causes most of the cellular damage is which of the following?

A. Excitation

B. Ionization

C. Classical scattering

D. Thompson scattering

B. Ionization

-The basic interaction is when radiation removes an electron from an atom leaving a positive ion (ionization). The atom will then react differently and may cause damage to that cell.

23

Which of the following cells would be affected by a relatively small amount of radiation exposure?

A. Muscle B. Nerve C. Leukocyte D. Liver

-C. Leukocyte

-White blood cells divide very rapidly and therefore are very radiosensitive.

24

What percentage of the total amount of radiation to the general population comes from background radiation?

A. 25% B. 35% C. 50% D. 70%

50%

-Background radiation may equal 1 mSv. However, one fluoroscopic examination could equal 50 mSv or more.

25

Which of the following types of radiation can cause ionization, and therefore biological damage?

1. X rays
2. Infrared
3. Microwaves

xray

-Infrared and microwaves are electromagnetic radiation just like x rays. The difference is they do not possess the energy it takes to remove electrons from their orbits which causes ionization.

26

What do the letters "LET" stand for?

A. Lethal effective tolerance B. Lethal exchange table C. Linear energy transmutation D. Linear energy transfer

Linear energy transfer

27

Which of the following refers to the single set of chromosomes in a genetic cell?

A. Diploid number B. Triploid number C. Haploid number D. Semiloid number

C. Haploid number

The first division produces two cells with the normal diploid number (23 pairs of chromosomes), these divide again to produce two more cells with a haploid number (23 single chromosomes).

28

What is the name of the stage of cell division that is commonly referred to as the resting stage?

A. Anaphase B. Interphase C. Metaphase D. Telophase

interphase

-Inter- means between. This is the stage between cell division when the DNA molecule is synthesized (combining parts to form a whole).

29

What is the molecule called that has one or more unpaired electrons and is unusually chemically reactive?

A. Ion B. Mutation C. Free radical D. Excited molecule

C. Free radical

During the radiolysis of water, free radicals are produced. They are highly energized and travel at high speeds causing more damage than the radiation.

30

Which of the following types of tissue will absorb the most radiation?

A. Air sacs B. Bone C. Muscle D. Soft tissue

bone

-The more dense the tissue, the greater the probability that radiation will strike a subatomic particle. Bone is the most dense tissue in the above list.

31

How is the coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) unit determined?

A. Absorbed dose B. Ionization in air C. Half-value layer D. Compared with rem

B. Ionization in air

-As x rays pass through a kg of air they ionize the gas atoms. The number of ionizations produces a charge that is measurable. The unit for charge is the Coulomb (C).

32

Irradiation of which of the following anatomical areas will affect the production of white blood cells?

A. Lungs B. Liver C. Pancreas D. Bone marrow

bone marrow

-Bone marrow is found in long bones and the flat bones of the pelvis, skull and sternum.

33

Gross structural changes that arise when radiation breaks a chromosome may be referred to as what?

1. Aberrations
2. Anomalies
3. Lesions

1. Aberrations
2. Anomalies
3. Lesions

34

Which of the following are considered extremely sensitive to radiation?

A. Gonads B. Spinal cord C. Thyroid gland D. Lens of the eye

A. Gonads

35

Which of the following describes an atom that has lost one or more of its electrons?

A. Ion B. Nuclide C. Isotope D. Unstable

ions

36

If a human is exposed to radiation levels in the 100 to 200 R range, which of the following is expected?

A. No clinical effects

B. Slight reduction in lymphocytes

C. Complete recovery in 90 days

D. Death within 30 days

C. Complete recovery in 90 days

-A human exposed to this level of radiation would experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and decreasing blood cell counts. However, they would be expected to completely recover.

37

Which of the following is the major function of the process of meiosis?

A. Synthesize physical characteristics

B. Reduce number of chromosomes by half

C. Increase the number of germ cells

D. Synthesize proteins

B. Reduce number of chromosomes by half

-Meiosis is a cell division in which two successive divisions reduce the number of chromosomes in half. Then when two genetic cells join (ova and sperm) there will be the right number of chromosomes.

38

How will oxygen retention effect the radiosensitivity of a cell?

A. Radiosensitivity will increase

B. Radiosensitivity will decrease

C. Radiosensitivity will be eliminated

D. Radiosensitivity will not be effected

A. Radiosensitivity will increase

-A. Radiosensitivity will increase

39

Which of the following mature cells would be least sensitive to radiation?

A. Muscle cells

B. Nerve cells

C. Red blood cells

D. White blood cells

B. Nerve cells

-The rate at which cells divide determines the radiosensitivity of cells. Since mature nerve cells never divide, they are least sensitive to radiation.

40

Which of the following is the most common result of cell irradiation?

A. Cell death B. Sterilization C. Mutation D. Uncontrolled growth

-The most common result of cell irradiation would be complete recovery. Since it is not a choice, the next most common is when the cell is damaged enough that it cannot continue to reproduce.

41

The "Direct Hit" theory of cell irradiation can be described by which of the following statements?

A. The DNA molecule is struck

B. The cell nucleus is struck

C. The cell cytoplasm is struck

D. The cell is ionized

A. The DNA molecule is struck

-A "direct hit" means the radiation struck the DNA molecule. Whereas, an "indirect hit" means the radiation struck a water molecule which released a free radical that struck the DNA.

42

The information that cells require for metabolism is coded in which of the following?

A. Cytoplasm B. Spindle fibers C. RNA molecule D. DNA molecule

DNA

-Metabolism is chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for the cell's vital activities. DNA carries the code of the cell that determines which vital activities the cell will perform.

43

Which of these is a measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from radiation to soft tissue?

A. Rad B. Erg C. LET D. RBE

LET

-LET = linear energy transfer. It is the rate at which energy is lost as it ionizes atoms as it passes through matter.

44

What is meant by ionizing radiation?

A. Any electromagnetic radiation

B. Any radiation capable of removing an orbital electron

C. Any radiation emitted after ionization

D. Diagnostic x rays

Any radiation capable of removing an orbital electron

-A positive ion is produced when an electron is removed from an atom. The positive ion will chemically react differently. That is why ionizing radiation is potentially harmful.

45

What do the letters "RBE" stand for?

A. Relative biologic effectiveness

B. Radiosensitive biologic effect

C. Radioactive biological energy

D. Radiation bypass effect

A. Relative biologic effectiveness

-Relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) compares the biological effect of a 250 keV x ray with other radiations. For example, some radiation might produce twice the effect that a 250 keV x ray would.

46

What do the letters "GSD" stand for?

A. Gonadal safe dose

B. Genetically significant dose

C. Genetic-somatic dose

D. General somatic dose

B. Genetically significant dose

47

Which of the following is a type of damage that can occur to a DNA molecule when exposed to radiation?

1. Change in the genetic code
2. Breakage of the chromosome
3. Breakage of the DNA molecule

1. Change in the genetic code
2. Breakage of the chromosome
3. Breakage of the DNA molecule

48

Why is radiation exposure to the gonads such a critical concern?

1. The person may become sterile
2. Mutations in offspring may result
3. Gonadal cancer may develop

2. Mutations in offspring may result

49

During mitosis, each chromosome splits in half. What are the two halves called?

A. Chromatids B. Fragments C. Centromeres D. Spindle fibers

A. Chromatids

-The chromosome consists of two spiral structures called chromatids. During mitosis, these chromatids split and each one ends up in a daughter cell.

50

Which of the following is a measure of the rate of energy loss along the track of an ionizing particle?

A. Scintillation counter

B. Linear energy transfer

C. Linear attenuation coefficient

D. Ionization

Linear energy transfer

-In order for radiation to ionize an atom, an electron must be removed from the atom. It takes energy to remove an electron. The unit for LET is keV per micrometer.

51

The messenger RNA carries information to which of the following in order to synthesize proteins?

A. DNA molecule

B. Transfer RNA molecule

C. Chromosome

D. Ribosome

D. Ribosome

-Messenger RNA carries information from the DNA molecule (in the nucleus) to the ribosome (in the cytoplasm). Here the message is passed to transfer RNA which arranges amino acids into proteins.

52

A solid-state rectifier is primarily made of which of the following substances?

A. Aluminum B. Arsenic C. Silicon D. Iron

silicon

-When arsenic is added to silicon a n-type (negative) semiconductor is made and when gallium is added to silicon a p-type (positive) semiconductor is made.

53

What type of transformer core is most widely used in radiographic equipment?

A. Open core B. Closed core C. Shell type D. Air type

shell type

-A shell type transformer has its primary and secondary coils wrapped on top of each other, maximizing the effects of the mutual induction.

54

Which of the following are ways of testing for kVp accuracy?

1. Penetrometer
2. Digital kVp meter
3. Densitometer

1. Penetrometer
2. Digital kVp meter

55

Which of the following is correct concerning a neutral atom?

A. Same number of protons as electrons

B. Same number of protons as neutrons

C. Same number of neutrons as electrons

D. No subatomic particles

. Same number of protons as electrons

-For an atom to be neutral (no electrical charge) it has to have the same number of negative charges (electrons) as positive charges (protons).

56

Which of the following x-ray interactions occurs most often with x-ray energies over 100 keV?

A. Coherent (classical) scattering

B. Compton effect

C. Photoelectric absorption

D. Pair production

Compton effect

-Coherent (classical) scattering occurs with x-ray energies under 10 keV. The higher the energy, the more apt the x ray will be scattered (Compton) rather than absorbed (Photoelectric).

57

Ionization can result from which of the following interactions of radiation with tissue?

A. Characteristic B. Bremsstrahlung C. Photoelectric absorption D. Coherent (classical) scatter

Photoelectric absorption

Ionization is the removal of electrons from an atom. Classical scattering raises an electron to a higher energy level but does not remove it from its orbit. Characteristic and Bremsstrahlung are ways x rays are produced not x-ray interactions with tissue.

58

Which of the following would describe an x-ray photon?

A. High speed electron B. High speed neutron C. High speed proton D. High speed bundle of energy

D. High speed bundle of energy

-Since an x-ray photon is alternating electric and magnetic fields with no mass nor charge, they are often described as a "bundle of energy".

59

How many centimeters are in an inch?

A. 1.63 B. 2.10 C. 2.54 D. 3.46

2.54

60

Which of the following will produce the least load on an x-ray tube?

A. High kVp, high mAs B. High kVp, low mAs C. Low kVp, high mAs D. All will produce an equal load

B. High kVp, low mAs

-The quantity of electrons (mAs) striking the anode is what determines the amount of heat produced. A high kVp, low mAs technique will produce the same exposure with less heat