Campbell Biology: Biology chapter 8 Flashcards
The process of cellular respiration, which converts simple sugars such as glucose into CO2 and water is an example of ______.
A. A pathway in which the entropy of the system decreases
B. A catabolic pathway
C. A pathway that occurs in animal cells but not plant cells
D. A pathway that converts organic matter into energy
E. An endergonic pathway
A catabolic pathway
Energy is observed in two basic forms; potential and kinetic. Which of the following correctly matches the forms with a source of energy.
A. The motion of individual molecules: potential energy
B. The energy related to the height of the bird above the ground: Kinetic Energy
C. The covalent bonds of a sugar molecule: potential energy
D. The heat released from living organism: potential energy
E. The energy associated with a gradient of ions across a membrane: Kinetic Energy
The covalent bonds of a sugar molecule: potential energy.
Which of the following is true of metabolism and it’s entirety of all organisms?
A. Metabolism consists of all energy transformation reactions in an organism
b. Metabolism uses all of an organism’s resources
c. Metabolism manages the increase of entropy in an organism
d. Metabolism depends on a consistent supply of energy from food
Metabolism consists of all the energy transformation reactions in organism.
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than Kinetic energy?
a. A crawling beetle foraging for food
b. Water rushing over Niagara Falls
C. Light flashes emitted by a firefly
d. A molecule of glucose
A molecule of glucose
Most cells cannot harness heat perform work because ______.
a. Heeat is not a form of energy
b. Temperature is usually uniform throughout the cell
c. Heat can never be used to do work
d. He must maintain constant during work
Temperature is usually uniform throughout the cell
Which of the following statements about the combustion of glucose with oxygen to form water and carbon dioxide is correct?
a. The reverse reaction, making glucose from water and carbon dioxide, must be an Exergonic reaction
b. The entropy of the products is greater than the entropy of the reactants
c. The entropy of the universe decreases as a result of this reaction
d. This is the process of cellular respiration, an anabiolic pathway that releases free energy
e. The free energy lost in the combustion is less than the energy that appears as heat
The entropy of products is greater than the entropy of the reactants
Which of the following statements about equilibrium of chemical reaction is correct?
a. The equilibrium point is where the system has the highest free energy
b. Reactions can only go in the direction towards equilibrium
c. Most reactions in a living cell are close to equilibrium
d. Every action that is at equilibrium is not capable of doing any work
e. Equilibrium point of the reaction represents at least stable configuration for that reaction
A reaction that is at equilibrium is not capable of doing any work.
The mathematical expression for the expression for the change of a system is ΔG = ΔH - TΔS. Which of the following is correct?
a. H is the change in entropy, the energy available to do work
b. G is the change in free energy
c. S is the change enthalpy, a measure of randomness
d. T is the temperature in degrees Celsius
ΔG is the change in free energy
Which of the following statements about ATP is correct?
A. The energy release on hydrolysis of ATP is the result of breaking a high energy bond
b. The hydrolysis of ATP is an endergonic process
c. The hydrolysis of ATP can supply energy needed for catabolic pathways
d. Almost all of the free energy released on the hydrolysis of ATP is released as heat
e. The cycling between ATP and ADP + pi provides an energy coupling between catabolic and anabolic pathways
The cycling between ATP and ADP + Pi provides an energy coupling between catabolic and anabolic pathways
Why is ATP in important molecule in metabolism?
a. It’s terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that, when hydrolyzed, releases free energy
b. It’s terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two phosphate bonds
c. It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions
d. It’s hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions
It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endogonic reactions
Catabolic pathways _______.
a. Are endergonic
b. Are spontaneous and do not need enzyme catalysis
C. Supply energy, primarily in the form of ATP, for the cells work
d. Combine molecules into more energy rich molecules
Supply energy, primarily in the form of ATP, for the cells work.
Enzymes are described as catalyst, which means that they ______.
a. Increase the free energy of the reactance to make the reaction go faster
b. Can alter the free energy change for a chemical reaction
c. Provide activation energy for the reactions they facilitate
d. Are proteins
e. Increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Which of the following would be unlikely to contribute to the substrate specificity of an enzyme?
a. A hydrophobic group on the substrate interacts with several hydrophobic amino acids on the enzyme
b. The enzyme has an allosteric regulatory site
c. A similar shape exist between a pocket on the surface of the enzyme in the functional group of the substrate
The enzyme has a allosteric regulatory state
Which of the following is NOT a way in which an enzyme can speed up the reaction that is catalyzes?
a. Binding of the substrate to the active site can stretch bonds in the substrate that need to be broken
B. The enzyme binds a cofactor that interacts with the substrate to
facilitate the reaction
c. The active site can provide heat from the environment that raises the energy content of the substrate
The active site can provide heat from the environment that raise the energy content of the substrate.
Which of the following is true when comparing and uncatalyzed reaction to the same reaction with a catalyst?
a. Catalyzed reaction will be slower
b. The catalase reaction will have the same as G
The catalyzed reaction will consume all of the catalyst
The catalyzed reaction will have the same ΔG
The binding of a compound to an enzyme is observed to slow down or stop the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme? increasing the substrate concentration reduces the inhibitory effects of this compound? which of the following could account for this observation?
A. The compound is a competitive inhibitor
b. The compound reduces disulfide bonds, causing the enzyme molecules to partially unfold
c. The compound is a negative allosteric regulator
The compound is a competitive inhibitor
Select the correct statement about chemical energy, a term used by biologists to referred to potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction.
a. Light energy is converted to a chemical energy during photosynthesis
b. When a glucose molecule is cannibal iced to CO2 and H2O, chemical energy is lost
C. A photosynthetic cell within a plant leaf produces chemical energy, stored within glucose molecules
Light energy is converted to chemical energy during photosynthesis.
Which statement about finding of enzymes and substrates is correct?
a. Substrate molecules that into the active site of an enzyme like a key fits into a lock
b. Substrate molecules binds to the active site of the enzyme only by weak bonds, such as hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic attraction
c. When substrate molecules bind to the active site of the enzyme, the enzyme undergoes a slight change in shape
When substrate molecules bind to an active site of the enzyme, the enzyme undergoes a slight change in shape.
Which of the following involves a decrease in entropy?
a. Condensation reactions
b. Reactions a separate monomers
c. Depolymerization reactions
d. Hydrolysis reactions
Which of the following is the most correct interpretation of the figure.
A. Pi acts as a shuttle molecule to move energy from ATP to ADP
b. ATP is a molecule that acts as an intermediary to store energy for cellular work
c. Energy from ccatabolism be used directly for performing cellular work
d. ATP + pi are a set of molecules that store energy for catabolism
ATP is a molecule that acts as an intermediary to store energy for cellular work
How do cells use the ATP cycle shown in the figure?
a. Cells use the cycle to recycle energy released by ATP hydrolysis
b. Cells use the cycle to recycle ADP, phosphate, and the energy released by ATP hydrolysis
c. Cells use this primarily to generate heat
D. Cells use the cycle to recycle ADP and phosphate
Cells use the cycle to recycle ADP and phosphate
According to the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme catalysis, ______.
A. The binding of the substrate depends on the shape of the active site.
B. Active site creates of microenvironment idea for the reaction
C. Some enzymes change their structure when the activators bind to the enzyme
D. The binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site
The binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
a. Energy cannot be created or destroyed
b. Energy cannot be transferred or transformed
c. Entropy of the universe is constant
Entropy of the universe is decreasing
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the second law of thermodynamics?
a. Every energy transformation Byselle decreases the entropy of the universe
b. Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by gain of free energy
c. Cells require constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization
d. Without input of energy, organisms would tend towards decreasing entropy.
Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
c. Anabolic reactions
d. Catabolic reactions
Which of the following is true for all Exergonic reactions?
a. The reaction goes only in forward direction, all reactants will be converted to products, but no products will be converted to reactants.
B. The reaction proceeds with the net release of free energy
c. The products have more total energy than the reactants
d. The net input of energy from the surrounding is required for the reactions to proceed
The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy
A chemical reaction that has positive G is described as _____.
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes the sentence: catabolism is to anabolism as _____ is to ______.
Which of the following is true about enzymes?
a. Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by providing activation energy to the substrate
b. Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy barriers
c. Enzymes function is independent of physical and chemical environmental factors such as pH and temperature
d. Enzyme function is increased if the 3-D structure or conformation of an enzyme is altered
Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction in the worrying activation energy barriers
The lock and key analogy for enzymes applies to the specificity of enzymes _______.
a. Interacting with water
b. Binding to their substrate
c. As they form their tertiary and quaternary structure
d. Interacting with ions
Biding to their substrate
The active site of an enzyme is in the region that _______.
a. Is involved in the catalyctic reaction of the enzyme
b. Binds allosteric regulators to the enzyme
c. Is inhibited by the presence of a coenzyme or a cofactor
d. Binds noncompetitive inhibitors of the enzyme
Is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme