CHAPTER 6 BIO FLASHCARDS Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

A) Prokaryotes have cells while eukaryotes do not.

B) Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes.

C) Prokaryotes are not able to carry out aerobic respiration, relying instead on anaerobic metabolism.

D) Prokaryotes are generally larger than eukaryotes.

B) Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes.

2

Which structure is common to plant andanimal cells?

A) chloroplast

B) central vacuole

C) mitochondrion

D) centriole

C) mitochondrion

3

Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?

A) mitochondrion

B) ribosome

C) chloroplast

D) ER

B) ribosome

4

In a prokaryote, we will find DNA in _____.

A) a membrane-enclosed nucleus

B) mitochondria

C) the nucleoid region

D) ribosomes

C) the nucleoid region

5

Which organelle is found only in plant cells?

A) mitochondria

B) microtubules

C) Chloroplasts

D) peroxisomes

C)Chloroplasts

6

What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in eukaryotes?

A) It regulates the movement of proteins and RNAs into and out of the nucleus.

B) It synthesizes the proteins required to copy DNA and make mRNA.

C) It selectively transports molecules out of the nucleus, but prevents all inbound molecules from entering the nucleus.

D) It assembles ribosomes from raw materials that are synthesized in the nucleus.

A) It regulates the movement of proteins and RNAs into and out of the nucleus.

7

Which of the following macromolecules leaves the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell through pores in the nuclear membrane?

A) DNA

B) amino acids

C) mRNA

D) phospholipids

C) mRNA

8

Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?

A) Prokaryotes cannot secrete proteins because they lack an endomembrane system.

B) The mechanism of protein secretion in prokaryotes is probably the same as that in eukaryotes.

C) Proteins secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.

D) Prokaryotes cannot secrete proteins because they lack ribosomes.

C) Proteins secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.

9

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

A) lipids

B) glycogen

C) proteins

D) nucleic acids

C) proteins

10

The nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of the nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would you most likely expect to be the immediate consequence?

A) the loss of all nuclear function

B) the inability of the nucleus to divide during cell division

C) a change in the shape of the nucleus

D) failure of chromosomes to carry genetic information

C) a change in the shape of the nucleus

11

Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?

A) lysosome

B) vacuole

C) Golgi apparatus

D) peroxisome

B) vacuole

12

A cell with an extensive area endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to _____.

A) play a role in storage

B) synthesize large quantities of lipids

C) actively export protein molecules

D) import and export protein molecules

A), B), and C)

13

Which structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system?

A) nuclear envelope

B) chloroplast

C) Golgi apparatus

D) plasma membrane

B) chloroplast

14

The Golgi apparatus has a polarity, or sidedness, to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?

A) Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.

B) Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.

C) Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.

D) All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.

D) All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.

15

Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

A) rough ER

B) plasmodesmata

C) Golgi vesicles

D) free cytoplasmic ribosomes

A) rough ER

16

What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?

A) ER → Golgi → nucleus

B) Golgi → ER → lysosome

C) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

D) ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

C) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

17

Asbestos is a material that was once used extensively in construction. One risk from working in a building that contains asbestos is the development of asbestosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Cells will phagocytize asbestos, but are not able to degrade it. As a result, asbestos fibers accumulate in _____.

A) mitochondria

B) ribosomes

C) peroxisomes

D) lysosomes

D) lysosomes

18

Which of the following is NOT true? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria _____.

A) have their own DNA

B) have multiple membranes

C) are part of the endomembrane system

D) are capable of reproducing themselves

C) are part of the endomembrane system

19

Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?

A) lysosome

B) mitochondrion

C) Golgi apparatus

D) peroxisome

B) mitochondrion

20

Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in _____.

A) chloroplasts

B) mitochondria

C) lysosomes

D) nuclei

A) chloroplasts

21

In a plant cell, DNA may be found _____.

A) only in the nucleus

B) only in the nucleus and chloroplasts

C) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

D) in the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes

C) in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

22

In a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and _____.

A) combine the hydrogen with water molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide

B) use the hydrogen to break down hydrogen peroxide

C) transfer the hydrogen to the mitochondria

D) transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide

D) transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide

23

The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved _____.

A) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell—the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria

B) anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen—the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts

C) an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolving into the nucleus

D) acquisition of an endomembrane system and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi

A) endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell—the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria

24

Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from _____.

A) a bacterium

B) an animal but not a plant

C) nearly any eukaryotic organism

D) a plant but not an animal

C) nearly any eukaryotic organism

25

Suppose a young boy is always tired and fatigued, suffering from a metabolic disease. Which of the following organelles is most likely involved in this disease?

A) lysosomes

B) Golgi apparatus

C) ribosomes

D) mitochondria

D) mitochondria

26

Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?

A) membrane proteins of the inner nuclear envelope

B) free ribosomes and ribosomes attached to the ER

C) components of the cytoskeleton

D) cellulose fibers in the cell wall

C) components of the cytoskeleton

27

Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which involves _____.

A) growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane

B) setting up microtubule extensions that vesicles can follow in the movement of cytoplasm

C) reinforcing the pseudopod with intermediate filaments

D) cytoplasmic streaming

A) growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane

28

Researchers tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?

A) an axon

B) contractile microfilaments

C) endoplasmic reticulum

D) motor proteins

D) motor proteins

29

Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?

A) tubulin

B) laminin

C) actin

D) intermediate filaments

A) tubulin

30

Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?

A) The cytoskeleton of eukaryotes is a static structure most resembling scaffolding used at construction sites.

B) Although microtubules are common within a cell, actin filaments are rarely found outside of the nucleus.

C) Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other.

D) Chemicals that block the assembly of the cytoskeleton would have little effect on a cell's response to external stimuli.

C) Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other.

31

A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in its _____.

A) nuclear matrix and extracellular matrix

B) mitochondria and Golgi apparatus

C) extracellular matrix

D) nuclear pores and secretory vesicles

C) extracellular matrix (Proteoglycans)

32

The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?

A) gap junctions

B) the nucleus

C) DNA and RNA

D) integrins

D) integrins

33

Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?

A) desmosomes

B) gap junctions

C) extracellular matrix

D) tight junctions

D) gap junctions

34

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT _____.

A) a cell wall

B) a plasma membrane

C) ribosomes

D) an endoplasmic reticulum

D) an endoplasmic reticulum

35

Singer and Nicolson's fluid mosaic model of the membrane proposed that
A) membranes are a phospholipid bilayer.
B) membranes are a phospholipid bilayer between two layers of hydrophilic proteins.
C) membranes are a single layer of phospholipids and proteins.
D) membranes consist of protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
E) membranes consist of a mosaic of polysaccharides and proteins.

Answer: D

36

Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?
A) phospholipids and cellulose
B) nucleic acids and proteins
C) phospholipids and proteins
D) proteins and cellulose
E) glycoproteins and cholesterol

Answer: C

37

When biological membranes are frozen and then fractured, they tend to break along the middle of the bilayer. The best explanation for this is that
A) the integral membrane proteins are not strong enough to hold the bilayer together.
B) water that is present in the middle of the bilayer freezes and is easily fractured.
C) hydrophilic interactions between the opposite membrane surfaces are destroyed on freezing.
D) the carbon-carbon bonds of the phospholipid tails are easily broken.
E) the hydrophobic interactions that hold the membrane together are weakest at this point.

Answer: E

38

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
A) enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
B) enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids.
C) enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids.
D) makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell.
E) makes the animal more susceptible to circulatory disorders.

Answer: A

39

Which of the following is one of the ways that the membranes of winter wheat are able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold?
A) by increasing the percentage of unsaturated phospholipids in the membrane
B) by decreasing the number of hydrophobic proteins in the membrane
C) by cotransport of glucose and hydrogen
D) by using active transport

Answer: A