A&P 2 final pt. 2 multiple choice Flashcards


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Respiratory, Urinary, Electrolytes and Acid Base, Male and Female Reproduction, Review Mid-term questions
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1

The main site of gas exchange is the

A) Alveolar sacs

B) alveoli

C) alveolar duct

D) respiratory bronchiole

B

2

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to

A) secrete surfactant

B) trap dust and other debris

C) replace mucus in the alveoli

D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

A

3

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere

B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere

D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure

B

4

The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by

A) Boyle's law

B) Henry's law

C) Charles' law

D) Dalton's law

A

5

The statement " in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphases

A) Henry's law

B) Boyle's law

C) Dalton's law

D) Charles' law

C

6

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by

A) humidifying the air before it enters

B) warming the air before it enters

C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

D) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variation

C

7

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n)

A) decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

C) increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

D) increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

B

8

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is

A) loss of oxygen in tissues

B) increase of carbon dioxide

C) acidosis

D) alkalosis

B

9

The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is

A) the Bohr effect

B) the Haldane effect

C) chloride shifting

D) ventilation-perfusion coupling

D

10

which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

A) pulmonary ventilation

B) blood pH adjustment

C) internal respiration

D) external respiration

B

11

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called

A) reserve air

B) expiratory capacity

C) inspiratory reserve

D) vital capacity

C

12

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by

A) osmosis

B) diffusion

C) filtration

D) active transport

B

13

The urinary bladder is composed of _____ epitheilum

A) Transitional

B) simple squamous

C) stratified squamous

D) pseudostratified squamous

A

14

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it

A) ensure adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently

B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

C) is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys

D) produces vitamin D and other chemicals needed by the kidney

B

15

The renal corpuscle is made up of

A) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

B) the descending nephron loop

C) the renal pyramid

D) the renal papilla

A

16

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the

A) nephron

B) nephron loop

C) glomerular capsule

D) capsular space

A

17

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

A) the ionic electrochemical gradient

B) protein- regulated diffusion

C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

D) the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries

C

18

Alcohol acts as diuretic because it

A) is not reabsorbed by the tubule cell

B) increases the rate of glomerular filtration

C) increases secretion of ADH

D) inhibits the release of ADH

D

19

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body

1. major calyx

2. minor calyx

3. nephron

4. urethra

5. ureter

6 collecting ducts

A) 3,1,2,6,5,4

B) 6,3,2,1,5,4

C) 2.1.3.6.5.4

D) 3,6,2,1,5,4

D

20

Functions of the urinary system include

A) regulation of blood volume and blood pressure

B) regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions

C) helping to stabilize blood pH

D) conservation of valuable nurtrients

E) all of the answers are correct

E

21

A glomerulus is

A) the expanded end of a nephron

B) a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle

C) the source of erthropoietin

D) attached to the collecting duct

E) the horseshoe- shaped segment of the nephron

B

22

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by

A) blood vessels

B) lymphatics

C) the ureters

D) the urethra

E) the calyces

C

23

All of the following are true of the kidneys except that they are

A) located in a position that is retroperitoneal

B) surrounded by a fibrous capsule

C) located partly within the pelvic cavity

D) held in place by the renal fascia

E) covered by peritoneum

C

24

The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the

A) calyx

B) pelvis

C) ureter

D) hilum

E) pyramid

D

25

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the

A) renal papilla

B) renal pelvis

C) renal medulla

D) renal cortex

E) renal sinus

B

26

Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called

A) pyramids

B) renal columns

C) renal pelvises

D) nephron

E) calyces

A

27

Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the

A) afferent arteriole

B) efferent arteriole

C) vasa recta

D) interlobular arteriole

E) renal vein

B

28

Capillaries that surround the proximal convoluted tubules are

A) proximal capillaries

B) corticoradiate capillaries

C) vasa recta capillaries

D) efferent arterioles

E) perittubular capillaries

E

29

The filtration of plasma takes place in the

A) nephron loop

B) distal convoluted tubule

C) papillary duct

D) renal corpuscle

E) ureter

D

30

Filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the

A) nephron loop

B) proximal convoluted tubule

C) distal convoluted tubule

D) collecting duct

E) minor calyx

B

31

The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the

A) nephron loop

B) proximal convoluted tubule

C) Distal convoluted tubule

D) papillary tubule

E) calyx

C

32

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) in the glomerulus is generated by

A) blood pressure

B) presence of albumin proteins in blood plasma

C) constriction of the efferent arteriole

D) protein in the filtrate

E) filtrate in the capsular space

B

33

The main force that caues filtration in a nephron is

A) blood colloid osmotic pressure

B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure

C) osmotic pressure of the urine

D) capsular hydrostatic pressure

E) reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubule pulls filtrate from blood

B

34

The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

A) calcium ions

B) potassium ions

C) hydrogen ions

D) sodium ions

D

35

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentration in the extracellular fluid?

A) antidiuretic hormone

B) erthropoietin

C) aldosterone

D) renin

C

36

Respiratory acidosis can occur when

A) a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

B) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

C) a runner has completed a very long marathon

D) the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

B

37

Total body water percent is not a function of which of the following?

A) age

B) body mass

C) amount of body fat

D) amount of water ingested

D

38

which of the following is describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

A) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

B) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids

C) equal amounts of each ions in the cells and body fluids

D) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

A

39

A failing blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates

A) respiratory acidosis

B) respiratory alkalosis

C) metabolic acidosis

D) metabolic alkalosis

A

40

the movement of fluids between cellular compartments

A) requires active transport

B) is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

C) requires ATP for the transport to take place

D) involves filtration

B

41

Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?

A) bicarbonate

B) phosphate

C) nucleic acid

D) protein

C

42

Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?

A) aldosterone

B) progesterone

C) antidiurectic hormone

D) atrial natriuretic peptide

C

43

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high pH value. What is the likely diagnosis?

A) respiratory acidosis

B) metabolic acidosis

C) metabolic alkalosis

D) respiratory alkalosis

C

44

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly, Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

A) respiratory acidosis

B) metabolic acidosis

C) metabolic alkalosis

D) respiratory alkalosis

B

45

The most import force causing water flow across capillary wall is

A) osmotic pressure of plasma proteins

B) hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

C) hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid

D) intracellular hydrostatic pressure

B

46

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?

A) they contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens

B) they regulate the temperature of the testes

C) they are responsible for penile erection

D) they contract to allow ejaculation

B

47

Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

A) the seminal vesicles

B) the bulbourethral glands

C) the prostate

D) the pituitary

A

48

How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?

A) they move close to the pelvic cavity

B) they move away from the pelvic cavity

C) excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum

D) excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm

B

49

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause

A) decreased testosterone

B) excessive beard growth

C) increased spermatogenesis

D) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland

A

50

The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the

A) spermatocytes

B) spermatogonia

C) sustentocytes

D) interstitial cells

C

51

The duct system of the male reproductive system includes all but which of the following?

A) epididymis

B) urethra

C) ductus deferens

D) corpus spongiosum

D

52

The reproductive system

A) produces gametes

B) stores gametes

C) transport gametes

D) nourishes gametes

E) all of the answers are correct

E

53

Arrange the 4 structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.

1. ductus deferens

2. urethra

3. ejaculatory duct

4. epididymis

A) 1,3,4,2

B) 4,3,1,2

C) 4,1,2,3

D) 4,1,3,2

E) 1,4,3,2

C

54

The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the

A) ductus deferens (vas deferens)

B) epididymis

C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle)

D) ejaculatory duct

E) corpus cavernosum

A

55

The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the

A) median raphe

B) spermatic cord

C) tunica albuginea

D) dartos

E) epididymus

C

56

Sperm production occurs in the

A) ductus deferens

B) seminiferous tubules

C) epididymis

D) seminal glands (seminal vesicles)

E) rete testis

B

57

The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the

A) seminal gland (seminal vesicle)

B) bulbourethral gland

C) prostate gland

D) preputial gland

E) Bartholin's gland

C

58

The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the

A) ejaculatory duct

B) prepuce

C) corpus cavernosum

D) corpus spongiosum

E) penile urethra

B

59

The primary function of the uterus is to

A) protect the ovaries

B) synthesize female hormones

C) regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles

D) receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

D

60

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, the providing a site for fertilization, are called the

A) Graafian follicles

B) fallopian tubes

C) infundibula

D) fimbriae

B

61

Human egg and sperm are similar in that

A) about the same number of each is produced per month

B) they have the same degree of motility

C) they have the same number of chromosomes

D) they are about the same size

C

62

which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?

A) labia majora

B) labia minora

C) clitoris

D) vagina

A

63

Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?

A) serves as a passageway fro the primary oocyte

B) serves as a passageway for menstrual flow

C) serves as the birth canal

D) receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse

A

64

Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?

A) LH

B) FSH

C) progesterone

D) estrogen

A

65

which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?

A) the ampulla is the narrow constricted region

B) the infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary

C) the isthmus is the normal site of fertilization

D) the mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length

B

66

The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called

A) mitosis

B) meiosis

C) maturation

D) capactiation

E) fertilization

B

67

The inferior one-third portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the

A) isthmus

B) fornix

C) fundus

D) body

E) cervis

E

68

The thick muscular layer of the uterus is the

A) endometrium

B) perimetrium

C) myometrium

D) uterometrium

E) sacrometrium

C

69

The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the

A) uterosacral ligament

B) vagina

C) uterine (fallopian) tube

D) infundibulum

E) myometrium

C

70

The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the

A) vagina

B) uterine tube

C) ovary

D) uterus

E) cervis

D

71

The average length of the menstrual cycle is ___ days

A) 16

B) 19

C) 21

D) 28

E) 35

D

72

The vagina is

A) lined by simple columnar epithelium rich in goblet cells

B) similar to the inner of the uterus

C) another term for the cervis

D) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia

E) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the anus

D

73

The vulva includes all of the following except the

A) mons pubis

B) vagina

C) labia minora

D) ciltoris

E) labia majora

B

74

Fatty folds of the skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and vestibule are the

A) fornices

B) ampullae

C) labia majora

D) mons pubis

E) vestibular arches

C

75

___ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.

A) hormones

B) neuropeptides

C) neurotransmitters

D) humoral antibodies

E) antigens

A

76

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ______ organ

A) endocrine

B) cardiovascular

C) renal

D) muscular

E) hepatic

A

77

Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. these categories include

A) peptides

B) steroids

C) eicosanoids

D) amino acid derivatives

E) all of the answers are correct

E

78

All target cells

A) have hormone receptors

B) respond to electrical signals

C) secrete hormones

D) produce their own hormones

E) are in the blood

A

79

The primary function of ADH is to

A) increase the amount of sodium lost at the kidneys

B) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

C) decrease blood pressure

D) delay urination

B

80

The posterior pituitary gland secretes

A) FSH

B) TSH

C) ACTH

D) ADH

E) MSH

D

81

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

A) transport of nutrients and wastes

B) transport body heat

C) transport of gases

D) defense against toxin and pathogens

E) all of the answers are correct

E

82

The most abundant proteins in blood plasma are

A) globulins

B) transport proteins

C) albumin

D) lipoproteins

E) fibrinogens

C

83

The average life span of a red blood cell is

A) 24 hours

B) 1 month

C) 4 months

D) about 1 year

E) many years

C

84

Each heme ring in hemoglobin encloses an atom of

A) magnesium

B) calcium

C) iron

D) sodium

E) copper

C

85

All of the circulating red blood cells in an adult originate in the

A) heart

B) thymus

C) spleen

D) red bone marrow

E) lymph tissue

D

86

In adults, erthropoiesis exclusively takes place in

A) the liver

B) yellow bone marrow

C) red bone marrow

D) the spleen

E) lymphoid tissue

C

87

The process of red blood cell production is called

A) erythrocytosis

B) erythropenia

C) hemocytosis

D) erythropoiesis

E) hematopenia

D

88

Artery is to _____ as vein is to _____

A) efferent, afferent

B) afferent, efferent

C) toward, away

D) afferent, away

E) efferent, away

A

89

Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the

A) aortic valve

B) pulmonary valve

C) mitral valve

D) tricuspid valve

E) bicuspid valve

B

90

Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the

A) right atrium

B) right ventricle

C) left atrium

D) let ventricle

E) conus arteriosus

A

91

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enter the

A) right atrium

B) right ventricle

C) left atrium

D) left ventricle

C

92

In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the

A) pleural space

B) pericardial space

C) mediastinum

D) cardiac notch

E) ventral cavity

C

93

The cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to

A) papillary muscles

B) trabeculae carneae

C) chordea tenineae

D) interatrial septa

E) coronary sulci

C

94

The left ventricle pumps blood to the

A) lungs

B) right ventricle

C) right atrium

D) aorta

E) pulmonary circuit

D

95

blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the ____ valve

A) mitral

B) bicuspid

C) tricuspid

D) pulmonary semilunar

E) aortic semilunar

C

96

The _____ valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium

A) semicaval

B) semilunar

C) bicuspid

D) tricuspid

E) pulmonic

C

97

The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heat. What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation?

1. right atrium

2. left atrium

3. right ventricle

4. left ventricle

5. venae cavae

6. aorta

7. pulmonary trunk

8. pulmonary veins

A) 1,2,7,8,3,4,6,5

B) 1,7,3,8,2,4,6,5

C) 5,1,3,7,8,2,4,6

D) 5,3,1,7,8,4,2,6

E) 5,1,3,8,7,2,4,6

C

98

The following are structural components of the conducting system of the heart

1. purkinje fibers

2. AV bundle

3. AV node

4. SA node

5. bundle branches

The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is

A) 1,4,3,2,5,

B) 3,2,4,5,1

C) 3,5,4,2,1

D) 4,3,2,5,1

E) 4,2,3,5,1

D

99

Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the

A) p wave

B) T wave

C) S wave

D) QRS complex

E) PR complex

D

100

The T wave on an ECG tracing represents

A) atrial depolarization

B) atrial repolarization

C) ventricular depoloarization

D) ventricular repolarization

E) ventricular contraction

D

101

With each ventricular systole

A) blood pressure remains steady

B) the ventricles fill with blood

C) blood pressure decreases

D) cardiac output decreases

E) blood pressure increases

E

102

After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the

A) arteries

B) arterioles

C) capillaries

D) venules

E) veins

D

103

what is the correct order for the sequence of blood vessels that blood would travel in the systemic circuit, starting at the aorta?

1. venules

2. arterioles

3. capillaries

4. elastic arteriers

5. medium veins

6. large veins

7. muscular arteries

A) 6,5,1,3,2,7,4

B) 4,7,2,3,1,5,6

C) 7,4,2,3,1,5,6

D) 5,6,1,3,2,7,4

E) 2,7,6,3,1,5,6

B

104

Blood pressure is lowest in the

A) arteries

B) arterioles

C) capillaries

D) venules

E) veins

E

105

Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?

A) blood viscosity

B) turbulence

C) vascular resistance

D) vessel diameter

E) all of the answers are correct

E

106

The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the____ cells

A) b

B) plasma

C) helper T

D) cytotoxic T

E) suppressor T

D

107

Stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes are concentrated in the

A) circulation

B) thymus

C) red bone marrow

D) spleen

E) yellow bone marrow

C

108

Inflammation produces localized

A) swelling

B) redness

C) heat

D) pain

E) all of the answers are correct

E

109

Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called immunity

A) active

B) natural passive

C) passive

D) auto

E) innnate

E

110

Defense of body against a particular pathogen is provided by

A) innate immunity

B) adpative immunity

C) immunological surveillance

D) skin defenses

E) fever

B

111

The following are steps in the cell-mediated immune response. What is the correct sequence for these steps?

1. several cycle of mitosis occur

2. antigen is engulfed and presented by a macrophage

3. cytotoxic T cells migrate to focus of infection

4. T cells with specific receptors recognize the antigen

5. T cells differentiate into cytotoxic T cells or T memory cells

6. cytotoxic T cells release perforin and/or lymphotoxin

A) 4,1,5,3,6,2

B) 2,4,1,5,3,6

C) 1,2,4,5,3,6

D) 3,2,4,1,5,6

E) 3,6,4,5,1,2

B