A&P

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1

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

A) compact bone

B) spongy bone

C) irregular bone

D) trabecular bone

A) compact bone

2

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

A) fat
B) blood-forming cells
C) elastic tissue
D) Sharpeyʹs fibers

A) fat

3

3) The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.

A) osteocyte
B) osteoblast
C) osteoclast
D) chondrocyte

B) osteoblast

4

4) What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

A) elastic connective tissue
B) dense fibrous connective tissue
C) fibrocartilage
D) hyaline cartilage

d) hyaline cartilage

5

5) In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause ________.

A) inadequate calcification of bone

B) decreased osteoclast activity

C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

D) increased osteoclast activity

c) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

6

6) A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

A) epiphysis
B) metaphysis
C) diaphysis
D) articular cartilage

c) diaphysis

7

7) The term diploë refers to ________.

A) the double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone

B) the fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue

C) the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

D) the two types of marrow found within most bones

c) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

8

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints?

A) meatus

B) ramus

C) fossa

D) foramen

E) epicondyle

B) ramus

9

Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.

A) decreasing exposure to the sun

B) drinking fluoridated water

C) decreasing weight-bearing exercise

D) increasing dietary vitamin C

B) drinking fluoridated water

10

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

A) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation

B) is produced by secondary ossification centers

C) involves medullary cavity formation

D) takes twice as long as diaphysis

B) is produced by secondary ossification centers

11

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

A) epiphyseal line

B) Haversian system

C) lacunae

D) epiphyseal plate

A) epiphyseal plate

12

The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.

A) elastic

B) fibrocartilage

C) hyaline

D) epiphyseal

C) hyaline

13

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

A) storage of mineralsB

B) supportC

C) communication

D) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)

C) communication

14

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

A) osseous matrix

B) spongy bone

C) the osteon

D) lamellar bone

C) the osteon

15

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.

A) cartilage and compact bone

B) chondrocytes and osteocytes

C) marrow and osteons

D) osteoblasts and osteoclasts

D) osteoblasts and osteoclasts

16

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

A) the struts of bone known as spicules

B) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

C) Volkmann's canals

D) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage

B) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

17

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.

A) cartilage and interstitial lamellae

B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts

C) blood vessels and nerve fibers

D) yellow marrow and spicules

C) blood vessels and nerve fibers

18

What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called?

A) Haversiancanals

B) lacunae

C) Volkmann's canals

D) trabeculae

B) lacunae

19

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

A) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.

B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

C) A medullary cavity forms.

D) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate.

B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

20

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

A) concentric growth

B) appositional growth

C) long bones reaching adult length and width

D) closing of the epiphyseal plate

B) appositional growth

21

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

A) stem cell

B) osteoclast

C) osteoblast

D) osteocyte

B) osteoclast

22

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

A) parathyroid hormone

B) calcitonin

C) thyroxine

D) estrogen

A) parathyroid hormone

23

The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40, ________.

A) is slower in females than in males

B) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

C) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton

D) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans

B) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

24

Wolff's law is concerned with ___.

a) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

b) the thickness and shape of a bhone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

c) the function of bone dependent on shape

d) the diameter of the bone being dependent of the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

b) the thickness and shape of a bhone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

25

Cranial bones develop ___.

a) from cartilage models

b) within fibrous membranes

c) from a tendon

d) within osseous membranes

b) within fibrous membranes

26

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormes that tend to "decrease" blood calcium levels?

a) pineal gland

b) thyroid

c) parathyroid

d) spleen

b) thyroid

27

Osteomyelitis is ___.

a) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium

b) literally known as "soft bones"

c) due to pus-forming bacteria

d) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism

c) due to pus-forming bacteria

28

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

a) growth at the epiphyseal plate

b) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

c) along the edges only

d) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

b) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

29

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

a) Growth occurs in the lining of long bones.

b) Fibroblasts give rise tot chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.

c) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage.

d) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

d) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

30

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ___.

a) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis

b) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

c) from the edges inward

d) in a circular fashion

b) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

31

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ___.

a) osteons

b) lamellar bone

c) trabeculae

d) osseous lamellae

c) trabeculae

32

Osteogenesis is the process of ___.

a) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone

b) bone destruction to liberate calcium

c) bone formation

d) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage

c) bone formation

33

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ___.

a) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

b) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity

c) defferentiation of osteoclasts

d) calcification of the matrix

a) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

34

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

a) thyroid hormone

b somatomedins

c) growth hormone

d) prolactin

c) growth hormone

35

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

a) overproduction of thyroid hormone

b) elevated levels of sex hormones

c) too much vitamin D in the diet

d) osteoblast activity exceeds ostoclast activity

b) elevated levels of sex hormones

36

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ___.

a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

b) postassium, phosphate, and vitamin D

c) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E

d) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

a) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

37

Ostealgia is ___,

a) a defect called clubfoot

b) a disease of the bone

c) pain in a bone

d) fractured bone

c) pain in a bone