Chapter 1: Orientation of the Human Body (Exam 1)

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Human Anatomy: Exam 1
updated 2 years ago by jcalvillo883
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1

What is the definition of Anatomy?

The study of the structure of the human body

2

What is the definition of Physiology?

Study of body function

3

What is microscopic anatomy?

  • Study of structures that can only be seen with a microscope
4

What is the order of hierarchy of structural organization?

  1. Chemical Level
  2. Cellular Level
  3. Tissue Level
  4. Organ Level
  5. Organ System Level
  6. Organismal Level
5

On which level are atoms the tiny building blocks of matter?

Chemical level

6

On which level are macromolecules the building blocks of structures?

Cellular level

7

Define Cells

  • It is the basic unit of life and all organisms are composed of cells
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells
8

Define Organ

A group of tissues that perform a common function or functions

9

Define Tissue

A group of cells that reform a common function or functions

10

What are the four types of tissue?

  1. Epithelial
  2. Connective
  3. Muscle
  4. Nervous
11

What is organ system? Give examples

A group of organs that perform a common function or functions

  1. Respiratory System
  2. Nervous System
  3. Muscular System
  4. Digestive System
12

Describe Anatomical Position

  1. Person stands erect with feet flat on ground
  2. Toes pointing forward
  3. Eyes facing forward
  4. Palms face anteriorly with thumbs pointed away
13

What does the axial region consist of?

It is the main axis:

  1. Head
  2. Neck
  3. Trunk
14

The trunk consists of

  1. Thorax
  2. Abdomen
  3. Pelvis
  4. Perineum
15

The appendicular region consists of

Limbs or appendages

16

Describe superior in anatomical position

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body

Above

17

Describe inferior in anatomical postion

Away from the head if toward the lower part of a structure or the body;

Below

18

Describe medial in anatomical position

Toward or at the midline of the body

On the inner side of

19

Describe lateral in anatomical position

Away from the midline of the body

On the outer side of

20

Describe Proximal in anatomical position

Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

21

Describe distal in anatomical position

Father from the origin of a body part or the option of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

22

Describe Anterior (ventral) in anatomical position

Toward or at the front of the body

In front of

23

Describe Posterior (dorsal) in anatomical position

Toward or at the back of the body;

Behind

24

Describe the midsagittal plane

card image

On the midline of body a plane extends vertically and divides the body into left and right parts

25

Describe the frontal (coronal) plane

card image

Extends vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

26

Describe the transverse plane

card image

Runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

27

What are the two large cavities of the body?

  1. Dorsal Body Cavity
  2. Ventral Body Cavity
28

How is the dorsal body cavity subdivided?

  1. Cranial Cavity
  2. Vertebral Cavity
29

Cranial cavity encloses the ...

Brain

30

Vertebral cavity encloses the ...

Spinal cord

31

Ventral body cavity contains which organs?

Visceral organs

Lungs, heart, intestines and kidneys

32

What are the two main divisions of the ventral body cavity?

Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

33

What are the three parts of the thoracic cavity?

  1. Pleural Cavity
  2. Mediastinum
  3. Pericardial cavity
34

Pleural cavity contains the ...

Lungs

35

Mediastinum contains the ...

Heart and the other thoracic organs

36

The heart is surrounded by?

The pericardial cavity

37

What are the two parts of the abdominopelvic cavity?

Abdominal cavity

Pelvic cavity

38

What is the superior part of abdominopelvic cavity?

abdominal cavity

39

What does the abdominal cavity contain?

The liver, stomach, kidneys and organs

40

What is the inferior part of the abdominal cavity?

Pelvic cavity

41

What does the pelvic cavity contain?

The bladder, some reproductive organs and the rectum

42

Many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity are surrounded by?

Peritoneal cavity

43

What cavities are serous cavities?

  1. Pleural cavity
  2. Pericardial cavity
  3. Peritoneal cavity
44

What are serous cavities lined with?

Serous membrane (serosa)