Quiz 2

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1

Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.

A) Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.

B) Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.

C) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.

D) Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.

C) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing

2

________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires.

A) Decubitus ulcer

B) Rosacea

C) Impetigo

D) Porphyria

D) porphyria

3

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

A) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum

B) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum

C) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum

D) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

C) Corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

4

Acne is a disorder associated with ________.

A) ceruminous glands

B) sebaceous glands

C) Meibomian glands

D) sweat glands

B) sebaceous glands

5

The dermis ________.

A) lacks sensory corpuscles and glands

B) is where melanocytes are found

C) is an avascular connective tissue layer

D) has two layers

has two layers

6

Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?

A) arrector folliculi

B) arrector integument

C) levator folliculi

D) arrector pili

arrector pili

7

If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?

A) lucidum

B) basale

C) spinosum

D) granulosum

lucidum

8

Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure?

A) Pacinian corpuscles

B) free nerve endings

C) Krause's end bulbs

D) Meissner's corpuscles

Meissnerʹs corpuscles

9

Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?

A) Pacinian corpuscle

B) Meissner's corpuscle

C) Ruffini body

D) free nerve ending

Meissner's corpuscle

10

Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?

A) Kin ky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.

B) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.

C) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.

D) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.

Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts

11

Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct?

A) Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin.

B) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.

C) Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.

D) Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions.

Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects

12

Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.

A) epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir

B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system

C) the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substances

D) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditions

resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system

13

The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.

A) bind the hair root to the dermis

B) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

C) cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle

D) serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

14

Vernix caseosa is a ________.

A) substance contributing to acne during adolescence

B) cheesy-looking sudoriferous secretion on the skin of newborns

C) whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands

D) coat of fine, downy hair on the heads of balding men

whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands

15

The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.

A) apocrine

B) mammary

C) ceruminous

D) eccrine

ceruminous

16

Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.

A) absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin

B) utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis

C) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis

D) filtration

diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis

17

The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.

A) it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock

B) the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus

C) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber

D) it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber

18

Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?

A) Melanoma

B) Basal cell carcinoma

C) Squamous cell carcinoma

D)Adenoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

19

Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________.

A) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties

B) are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays

C) are able to reproduce sporadically as needed

D) are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still function

produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties

20

Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.

A) maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature

B) provide the melanocyte with a protective shield against abrasion

C) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer

D) maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer

21

The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?

A) stratum basale

B) stratum corneum

C) stratum lucidum

D) stratum granulosum

stratum basale

22

The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?

A) macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells

B) keratinocytes, because they are so versatile

C) tactile cells

D) cells found in the stratum spinosum

macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells

23

Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?

A) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.

B) The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it.

C) Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.

D) The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick bundles of intermediate filaments.

Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.

24

The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?

A) goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells

B) osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells

C) monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes

D) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

25

The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

A) the hypodermal layer

B) the subcutaneous layer

C) the reticular layer

D) the papillary layer

the reticular layer

26

Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?

A) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.

B) The pain is acute due to the large number of Meissner's corpuscles.

C) The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.

D) The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing "black-and-blue marks."

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.

27

The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:

A) dermal papillae.

B) ceruminous glands.

C) hair follicles.

D) reticular papillae.

dermal papillae.

28

The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?

A) Every human being has the same pattern of ridges.

B) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.

C) Identical twins do not have the same pattern of ridges.

D) Because we are constantly shedding epithelial cells, these ridges are changing daily.

They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.

29

Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?

A) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.

B) The skin is protected by increasing the number of epidermal dendritic cells, which help to activate the immune system.

C) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

D) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin's color.

Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

30

Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?

A) The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.

B) It is impossible to suggest Addison's disease from an inspection of a person's skin.

C) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.

D) Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.

The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.

31

An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________.

A) nerve cell

B) phagocytic cell

C) melanocyte

D) squamous epithelial cell

phagocytic cell

32

What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?

A) age and glandular products

B) nutrition and hormones

C) sex and hormones

D) the size and number of hair follicles

nutrition and hormones

33

Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?

A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.

B) Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones.

C) Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue.

D) Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.

A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.

34

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?

A) holocrine and mammary

B) ec crine and apocrine

C) sebaceous and merocrine

D) mammary and ceruminous

B) ec crine and apocrine

35

The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.

A) primarily uric acid

B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C

C) metabolic wastes

D) fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins

B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C

36

Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?

A) in the axillary and anogenital area

B) in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet

C) in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis

D) beneath the flexure lines in the body

A) in the axillary and anogenital area

37

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.

A) as a protective coating when one is swimming

B) by high temperatures

C) b y hormones, especially androgens

D) when the air temperature drops

C) b y hormones, especially androgens

38

In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?

A) The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.

B) It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.

C) It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.

D) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.

D) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.

39

Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?

A) by using the "rule of nines"

B) by measuring urinary output and fluid intake

C) by observing the tissues that are usually moist

D) through blood analysis

A) by using the "rule of nines"

40

What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?

A) catastrophic fluid loss

B) infection

C) unbearable pain

D) loss of immune function

A) catastrophic fluid loss

41

Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.

A) age

B) weight

C) size

D) Male hormones

D) Male Hormones

42

Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.

A) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months

B) the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle

C) hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined length

D) they grow much slower

A) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months