Developmental Psychology Chapters 9-12

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1

List and describe Piaget's four stages of cognitive development.

Sensorimotor: Birth-2yrs Use senses to understand the world
Preoperational: 2-6yrs Thing magically and poetically, egocentric
Concrete operational: 6-11yrs Apply logic to what you can sense
Formal Operational: 12yrs and up Abstract & hypothetical though. Can think logically about things you have never experienced

2

What is Piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world from their own personal perspective?

Egocentrism

3

What is the term for the idea that nothing can be undone? The inability to recognize that some things can be restored to the way they were before a change occured?

Irreversibility

4

What is the term for temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities? It is aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.

Scaffolding

5

What is the term for a person's theory of what other people might be thinking? (in order to have this a child mus realize others have different thoughts than their own- around age 4)

Theory of Mind

6

What is the term fo human interaction that expands and advances understanding often through the words that one person uses to explain something to another?

Social Mediation
2yrs: 100-2000 words
3yrs: 1000-5000 words
4yrs: 3000-10000 words
5yrs: 5000-20000 words

7

What is the name of the type of learning program that uses both of these methods?
1. Piaget's methods of child discovery at their own pace
2. Vygotsky's approach of learning from each other

Child Centered Programs

8

What is the child centered program that is characterized by individual pride, accomplishment, and literacy related tasks?

Montessori

9

Was is the child centered program that originated in Italy and encourages each child's creativity in a carefully designed setting?

Reggio Emilia

10

Type of early education program that
1. stresses academic subjects
2. teach subjects and how to sit quietly
3. teach clear distinction between work and play
4. have a higher child-adult ratio and costs less

Teacher directed early education program

11

Name the program that may initially boost social and learning skills, but lacks clear goals. The results of this program are mired in politics. Early gains have been shown to fade as children age.

Head Start

12

What is the term for the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed?

Emotional Regulation

This is the most important psychosocial development between ages 2 & 6. It continues through life.

13

What are Erikson's 8 Psychosocial stages?

Trust vs. mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt,
Initiative vs. guilt (3-6yrs),
Industry vs. Inferiority,Identity vs Role Confusion
Intamacy vs. Isolation, Generality vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair

14

What is the term for when people blame themselves because they have done something wrong?

Guilt

15

What is the term for goals or drives that come from inside a person?

Intrinsic Motiviation

16

What is the executive part of the brain that acts on or inhibits parts of the brain where powerful emotions form (such as the amygdala)?

Prefrontal Cortex

Advances in this area occur at age 4 or 5

17

What are the 5 steps of Parten's progression of social play?

1. Solitary
2. Onlooker
3. Parallel
4. Associative
5. Cooperative

18

What are the benefits of rough and tumble play?

Advance children's social understanding
Physical benefits

19

What is the type of play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories they create? What are the benefits?

Sociodramatic Play
1. Explore and rehearse social roles
2. Test ability to explain and convince
3. Practice regulating emotions
4. develop a self concept in a nonthreatening context

20

What is the type of parenting style that enforces high standards, strict punishments, and relies on very little communication?

Authoritarian

21

What is the type of parenting style that is highly nurturing, there may be communication but little discipline?

Permissive

22

What is the type of parenting style that sets limits, and enforces rules but retains flexibility and good listening?

Authoritative

23

What is the type of parenting style that is indifferent and unaware of of what is going on in the child's life?

Neglectful/Uninvolved

24

What is the term for nonphysical acts such as insults or social rejection aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people?

Relational Aggression

25

What is the rate of growth in middle childhood?

Slow and Steady

26

What are six benefits of physical activity?

Better overall health, less obesity, appreciation of cooperation and fair play, improved problem solving ability, respect

27

What is the BMI percentile for an obese child?

95th percentile

28

What is the term for an inflammatory disorder of the airways?

Asthma
Signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. One cause is pollution.

29

What is one cause of speeding up thoughts and reactions times and impacting behavior?

Myelination of the the axons

30

Term for the "intelligence quotient" test that originally calculated mental age/chronological age x 100.

IQ test

Flynn effect: Rise in IQ within a nation

31

Gifted children have an IQ of...

Over 130

Different states have differing gifted programs.

32

What are the 3 parts of Sternburg's triartic theory?

Academic intelligence
Creative intelligence
Practical intelligence

33

What are Garner's 9 categories of intelligence?

linguistic, logical-mathematical,
musical, spatial, kinesthetic,
interpersonal, intrapersonal,
naturalistic, existential

People excel in some more than others

34

What is the term that links study of typical development to the study of disorders?

Developmental Psychopathology

35

What is the percentage of children diagnosed with ADHD?

5%

36

What are the three signs of Autistic Spectrum Disorder?

1. Impaired communication
2. Inadequate social skills
3. Unusual patterns of play

37

What is the principle that things can be organized into groups by some characteristic they have in common?

Classification

38

What is the theory in which instruction by others is crucial? Zone of proximal development and scaffolding play a role.

Vygotsky's Socio-cultural theory

39

What is the type of memory in which incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow information to be processed?

Sensory Memory

40

What is the correlation between academic achievement and socioeconomic status?

There is a strong correlation due to language exposure, adult expectations, and macrosystem resources.

41

What is the term for the practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context?

Pragmatics

It advances quite a bit in childhood.

42

What is the term for the implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every aspect of learning in school?

Hidden Curriculum

43

What is the percentage of children attending public school?

88%

44

What is the percentage of children being home schooled?

2%

45

What is the type of reading method in which a child learns letter-sound correspondences?

Phonics

46

What is the type of reading method in which a child may draw, talk, and write? They may invent their own spelling as part of the process. This method was supported by Piaget's followers.

Whole Language Approach