Human Anatomy & Physiology: Exam 1 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 12 years ago by ines
11,354 views
book cover
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 15, 16
the special senses and the endocrine system
updated 12 years ago by ines
Grade levels:
College: Second year
Subjects:
science, life sciences, human anatomy & physiology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

barany test

evaluates function of the semicircular canals by noting eye movements called hystagmus, using a desk chair to spin the subject

2

dynamic equilibrium

sense that reports on angular (rotary) acceleration or deceleration of the head in space

3

labyrinth

bony cavities and membranes of the inner ear

4

pharyngotympanic tube

tube that connects the middle ear and the pharynx also called the auditory tube or eustachean tube

5

weber test

quick screening test for hearing can detect unilateral(one sided) conductive hearing loss and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss

6

romberg test

test for inability to maintain body balance when eyes are closed and feet are together - indication of spinal cord disease

7

sensorineual deafness

deafness caused by the inability of nerve impulses to reach the auditory canter of the brain, because of nerve damage either to theinner ear or the brain

8

conduction deafness

inability to hear resulting form damage to structures of the middle or inner ear

9

rinne test

test for conductive hearing loss, using tuning fork to check for differences in bone and air conduction

10

function of the cochlea

contains the sensory receptors for hearing

11

function of semicircular canals

kinetic angular or rotational equilibrium (dynamic equilibrium

12

function of vestibular apparatus

utricle and saccule - static equilibrium - acceleration and deceleration

13

location of taste buds

tongue, soft palate, epiglotis, pharynx, inner cheeks

14

receptors for gustation

aste buds, widely distributed in the oral cavity

15

what are the five basic tastes

salt - metal ions
sweet - sugar, saccharin, alcohol, some amino acids
sour - hydrogen ions
bitter- alkaloids such as quinine (tonic water) nicotine
umami - amino acids, glutamate, and aspartate msg soda

16

receptors for olfaction

olfactory receptor cells - bipolar neurons - olfactory cillia extend outward from the epithelium

17

vertigo

asensation o fdizziness and rotaional movement when such movement is not occuring or has ceased

18

myopia

nearsightedness - light from distant objects is brought to a focal point before reaching the retina it then diverges
corrected by using a concave lens

19

what is convergance reflex

when both eyes are directed toward the near object viewed

20

hyperopia

farsightedness, light from a near object is brought to a focal point behind (past) the retina
corrected by using convex lenses

21

what is consensual reflex

application of a bright light to one eye causes reflex constriction of the pupil of the other as well as the pupil of the first eye

22

what is puppillary reflex

the reduction of pupil size in response to light

23

define accomidation

the ability to keep an object in focus on the retina as its distance from the eye varies

24

what are you testing for by measuring the near point of accomidation

lens elasticity

25

what is visual acuity

sharpness of vission

26

nystagmus

involuntary rolling of the eyes in any direction or the trailing of the eyes slowly in one direction

27

presbyopia

old vision lens becomes less elastic

28

near point

the closest point from the eye at which an object can be clearly seen

29

optic chiasm

visual information crossover point

30

snellen chart

an eye chart used to measure visual acuity

31

adaptation

1.any change in structure or response to suit a new environment 2. decline in transmission of a sensory nerve when a receptor is stimulated continuously and without change in stimulus strength

32

ampula

a localized dialation of a canal or duct

33

accomidation

the process of increasin the rerfractive power of th elens of the eye - focusing

34

auditory ossicles

the three tiny bones serving as trnsmitters of vibrations and located within the middle ear, malleus, incus, stapes

35

choroid

the vascular middle layer of the eye

36

cataract

clouding of the eyes lens - often congenital or age related

37

conjunctiva

thin protective mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior surface of the eye itself

38

electromagnetic readiation

emmitted photons - wave packets - of energy - ex. light, xray, infrared

39

fundus

base of an organ part farthest from the opening of the organ for example the posterior wall of the eye

40

glaucoma

condition in which intraocular pressure increases to levels that cause compression of the retins and optic nerve results in blindness and unless detected early

41

refraction

the bending of a lightray when it meets a different surface at an oblique

42

how do you test for astigmatism

view chart with one eye then the other if the lines appear equally dark and distinct no distortion of refraction surfaces if blurredor appear less dark then others astigmatism is present

43

what is 20/20

perfect vision

44

what is 20/40

less than normal vision

45

what is 20/15

better than normal vision

46

mmetropia

normal eye light from both near and far is focused properly on the retina

47

define astigmatism

irregularities in the curvatures of the lens and or cornea which lead to blurred vision

48

what is the test called that is used to test for color blindness

ishihars color test

49

opthalmic

pertaining to the eye

50

optic

pertaining to the eye or vision

51

lacrimal

pertaining to tears

52

cornea

transparent anterior portion of the eyeball part of the fibrous layer

53

aqueous humor

watery fluid in the anterior segment of the eye

54

blind spot

the area that lacks photoreceptors

55

hypersecretion

excessive secretion

56

hyposecretion

diminished secretion as by a gland

57

thalamus

recieves sensory information from all senses except taste and smell then rganizes and routes the information to the appropriate cortilcal areas

58

hypothalamus

regulates motivated behavior

59

medulla

controls vital functions - breathing heart rate and respiration - under the pons, controls sleep and above the spinal cord

60

ACTH

regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland (anterior pituitary)

61

testosterone

promotes maturation of the reproductive system, development of amle secondary sex characteristics, responsible for sexual drive, bothe endocrine and exocrain functions

62

name the endocrine glands

pineal gland
hypothalamus gland
pituitary gland
thyroid gland
parathyroid gland
endocrine glands
adrenal gland
pancreas
ovaries
testes

63

hypothalmic-hypophyseal portal tract

a downgrowth of hypothalamic tissue which maintains its neural connection with the hypothalamus via a nerve bundle called the hypothalmic-hypophyseal portal tract

64

infundibulum

funnel shaped stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus superiorly

65

hypothalamus

most important function is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland

66

what does hypersecretion of glucogon cause?what are the symptoms?

low blood sugar or hypoglycemia
anxiety, nervousness, tremors and wewakness

67

what happens when blood glucose levels are low

stimulates the liver to break down glucogen stores to glucose and release glucose to the blood

68

progesterone

during pregnancy maintain the uterine musculature,helps prepare the breast tissue for lactation

69

estrogen

responsible forsecondary sex characteristics of the female at puberty, act with progesterone help prepare the mammary glands for lactation

70

diabetis mellitus

inability of body cells to utilize glucose and the subsequent loss of glucose in the urine - alterations of protein and fat metabolism, erangements in carbohydrate metabolism

71

insulin - which gland? what does it do?

pancrease
elevated blood glucose levels stimulate release which decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating transport of glucose into body cells, it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage

72

adrenal cortex

produces steroid hormones called corticosteroids, aldosterone, glococorticoids, gonadocorticoids (sex hormones)

73

hirsutism

abnormal hairiness caused by hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids

74

gonadocorticoids or sex hormones

produced by the adrenal cortex are chiefly androgens (male sex hormones) but some are estrogens (female sex hormones) are formed

75

glucocorticoids

enable the body to resist long term stressors primarily by increasing blood glucose levels

76

aldosterone

regulate water and electrolyte balance in the extracellular fluids mainly by regulating sodium ion reabsorption by kidney tubules

77

adrenal medula

developes from neural crest tisue, directly controlled by the sympathetic nervous system - respond to SNS signals by realeasing epinephrine 80% and norepinephrine 20% which act in conjunction to the SNS to elicit fight or flight response

78

thymus

situated in the superior thorax posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and lungs - large in children shrinks with age - releases thymulin, thymosin and thymopoietins
involved in the development of T lymphocytes and the immune response

79

the thymus releases several differnet families of hormones, what are they? what do they do?

thymulin, thymosin and thymopoietins
thought to be involved in the development of T lymphocytes and immune response

80

PTH

most important regulator of calcium balance in the blood, when blood C levels decrease PTH is released, causes release of calcium from the bone matrix and prods the kidney to reabsorb more calcium and less phosphate, stimulates kidney to convert vitamin D to its active D3 form calcitrol

81

what occurs during hyposecretion of PTH

increases neural excitability and may lead to tetany, prolonged muscles spasms that can result in respiratory paralysis and death

82

what occurs during hypersecretion of PTH

results in loss of calcium from bones causing deformation, softening, and spontaneous fractures

83

what does hypersecretion of T4 cause

elevated metabolic rate, nervousness, weight loss, sweating, and irregular heartbeat

84

calcitonin

decreases blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium salt deposit in the bones
acts antagonistically to PTH
NOT involved in day to day control of calcium homeostasis

85

FSH - LH function

regulate gamate production and hormonal activity of the gonads (ovaries and testes)

86

gonadatropins

follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH

87

posterior gland releases

oxytocin and ADH

88

anterior gland releases

TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH (tropic) GH and PRL

89

thyroid hormone (TH) What are the two physiologically active hormones?

T4 and T3, primary function - to control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation
affects every cell in the body

90

polyphagia

increased hunger

91

polydipsia

increased thirst

92

polyuria

frequent urinaiton

93

diabetes mellitus

reffered to as diabetes - metabolic disease in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin or cells dont respond to insulin which is produced - polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia

94

hypersecretion of ADH results in

edema (tissue swelling caused by fluid retention) headache, and disorientation

95

hyposecretion of ADH results in

diabetes insipidus

96

diabetis insipidus

hyposecretion of ADH results in dehydration form excessive urine output
side effects - insatiable thirst

97

ADH

causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urinary filtrate, thereby reducing urine output and conserving body water

98

oxytocin

stimulates powerful uterine contractions during childbirth and coitus and also milk ejection in the lactating mother

99

hypophyseal portal system

hypothalamic hormones are liberated into the hypophyseal portal system and carried to cells of the anterior pituitary where they control release of anterior pituitary hormones

100

PRL

prolactin
stimulates breast development and promotes and maintains lactation by the mamary glands after childbirth, may stimulate testosteone production in males

101

hyposecretion of GH in children

dwarfism

102

hypersecretion of GH in a) children and b) adults

a) gigantism b) acromegaly

103

GH

plays an important role in determining body size, affects many tissues, major effects centered on the growth of muscles and long bones of the body

104

TSH

influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland

105

hyposecretion of T4 leads to a condition called what? what are the symptoms?

myxedema
mental and physical sluggishness

106

is the posterior pituitary an andocrine gland? why or why not?

no
it does not synthesize the hormones it releases, instead it acts as a storage area for the 2 hormones trnasported to it via the axons. hormones are released in response to nerve impulses form neurons

107

acromegaly

overgrowth of bones in hands, feet and face in daults when too much GH is released by the anterior pituitary gland

108

Hyposecretion of insulin (deficiency in the insulin receptors) leads to ______?

diabetes mellitus

109

glucogon acts ____________ to insulin

antagonistically

110

gonads

female - ovaries male - testes

111

chief cells (found in the parathyroid)

synthesize PTH

112

parafollicular (c cells)

found in the thyroid
produce calcitonin

113

colloid filled follicles

in the thyroid
contain stored T3 and T4 which attaches to the colloidal material storedin foloocles as thyroglobin which are released into the blood

114

islets of langerhans, are found where? and contain what ?

in the pancreas
alpha (produce glucogon) and beta (synthesize insulin) cells

115

acinar cells

in the pancreas
secrete hydrolic enzymes

116

what is contained in the scala vestibuli

perilymph

117

what is contained in the scala tympani

perilymph

118

what is contained in the scala media

endolymph

119

testes

male sex cell - sperm
hormone - testosterone

120

ovaries

female sex cell - ova
hormones - estrogen and progesterone

121

pancrease

both an exocrine and endocrine gland
produces - digestive enzymes, insulin and glucogon- important hormones concerned with the regulation of blood sugar levels

122

adrenal glands

adrenal medula and adrenal cortex

123

parathyroid gland

found embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
secrete PTH
most important regulator of calcoum balance of the blood

124

thyroid gland

located in the throat, jus tinferior to the larynx - two lobes joined by central mass or isthmus
major hormones are thyroid hormone(T3 and T4) and calcitonin

125

pineal gland

located in the roof of the third ventricle of the brain
produces melatonin
plays a role in biological rythms (sleep cycle)
exerts some inhibitory effect on the reporductive system that prevents precocious sexual maturation

126

rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

127

cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

128

photoreceptors

rods and cones

129

pigmented layer of the retina contains what

vitamin A