Anatomy Final-CH25 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Victoria_Rose_Couch
973 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

the region that combines several minor calyces to form two or three major calyces?

The minor and major calyces collect urine and distribute it onward through the urinary tract.

2

What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

3

Which part of the renal tubule is lined with cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?

proximal convoluted tubule

4

In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?

renal cortex

5

Where does the efferent arteriole of the juxtamedullary nephron carry blood to?

vasa recta

6

Which capillary bed produces filtrate?

glomerulus

7

What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?

monitoring the NaCl content of the filtrate

8

The __________ collect(s) urine, which drains continuously from the papillae; the urine is then emptied into the __________.

calyces; renal pelvis

9

What is the juxtaglomerular complex?

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

10

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

is drained by an efferent arteriole

11

Which of the following does not describe the juxtaglomerular complex?

Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone.

12

describe the juxtaglomerular complex

It regulates the rate of filtrate formation.
It helps control systemic blood pressure.
Its granular cells produce renin.

13

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.

renal fascia

14

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.

true

15

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.

false

16

Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?

blood cells and large particles

17

substances found in filtrate

water and small solutes
ions, such as sodium and potassium
nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea

18

What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?

hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)

19

Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?

protein

20

If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?

net filtration would decrease

21

Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.

25 mm Hg

22

Which of the following statements about ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is correct?

ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland.

23

What is the osmolarity of the filtrate at the end of the proximal tubule?

isotonic – 300 mOsm

24

In overhydration, what would be the levels of ADH (high, normal, or low) and what would be the osmolarity of the urine?

ADH – low; 100 mOsm (urine)

25

In severe dehydration or blood loss, what would be the levels of ADH and what would be the urine flow rate?

ADH – high; low urine flow rate (0.25 ml/min)

26

Which of the following best describes glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute

27

GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect which of the following?

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)

28

Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal autoregulation)?

myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback

29

Macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR through which intrinsic mechanism?

tubuloglomerular feedback

30

The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?

afferent arterioles

31

What does a high concentration of NaCl in the renal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) most likely indicate?

insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR

32

Through the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, how would an increase in filtrate NaCl concentration affect afferent arteriole diameter?

Afferent arteriole diameter would decrease.

33

Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR indirectly through which mechanism?

renin-angiotensin mechanism

34

What is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?

hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

35

Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote water reabsorption?

collecting duct

36

Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?

proximal convoluted tubule

37

Capsular hydrostatic pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.

false

38

The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water

false

39

The __________ is a skeletal muscle under conscious control that allows urine to leave the bladder.

external urethral sphincter

40

Which of the following is NOT one of the things that must happen for micturition to occur?

The extrusor muscle must relax.

41

things that must happen for micturition to occur?

The external urethral sphincter must open.
The detrusor muscle must contract.
The internal urethral sphincter must open.

42

Which of the following is NOT a cause of anuria?

vasodilation of afferent arterioles

43

causes of anuria

renal failure
obstruction in the urethra
vasodilation of afferent arterioles
heart failure

44

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

45

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

nephron -> collecting duct -> minor calyx -> major calyx -> ureter -> urethra

46

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.

secondary active transport

47

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.

appear in the urine

48

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

49

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________.

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

50

In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.

true

51

Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.

true

52

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.

false

53

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.

true

54

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.

true

55

An excessive urine output is called anuria.

false

56

Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.

true

57

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.

sodium

58

Under normal conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs all of the glucose, lactate, and amino acids in the filtrate and 65% of the Na+ and water.

true

59

Which urinary structure serves as the transporter for urine toward the bladder?

ureter

60

The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.

false

61

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

transitional

62

The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.

true