Anatomy Final-CH21 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following provides a first line of defense against pathogens?

intact skin and mucous membranes

2

With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?

opsonins

3

Four (or five) cardinal signs indicate inflammation. What specific sign of inflammation is the result of exudate in the tissue spaces?

edema (swelling)

4

Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is/are released by mast cells?

histamine

5

What characterizes the chemotaxis phase of phagocyte mobilization?

Neutrophils and other WBCs migrate up the gradient of chemotactic agents to the site of injury.

6

What protein can be released by infected cells to help protect cells that have not yet been infected?

interferon

7

How do interferons protect against viral infection in healthy cells?

Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins.

8

Which of the following phases involves white blood cells leaving capillaries?

diapedesis

9

Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?

opsonization

10

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

opsonization

11

Innate immune system defenses include ________.

phagocytosis

12

Which of the following is not a complement activation pathway?

lactate pathway

13

What are the complement activation pathway?

lectin pathway
alternative pathway
classical pathway

14

The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.

true

15

multiple sclerosis: autoimmune disorder

true

16

severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID): genetic defect resulting in a shortage of B and/or T cells

true

17

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome): helper T cells are destroyed by a virus

true

18

Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed hypersensitivity response; it is not characterized by an immediate response.

true

19

What types of antigen do T cells NOT recognize?

self antigens

20

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.

true

21

How does a lymphocyte exhibit immunocompetence?

by being able to recognize their one specific antigen

22

What describe the adaptive immune response?

It is systemic.
It is specific.
It has memory.

23

Which of the following cells engulf antigens and present fragments of them on their own surfaces for recognition?

dendritic cells

24

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

bone marrow

25

The antivenom used to treat venomous snake bites is an antibody produced in an animal such as a horse. Suppose these antibodies are injected into a patient who has been bitten by a venomous snake--how would you classify the resulting humoral immunity?

passive immunity, artificially acquired

26

Which of the following best illustrates artificially acquired active humoral immunity?

vaccines

27

What part of the antibody’s structure determines its class?

constant (C) region

28

Which of the following occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins?

neutralization

29

Which mechanism(s) of antibody action result(s) in cell lysis?

complement fixation and activation

30

T cells achieve self-tolerance in the __________.

thymus

31

Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells (APC)?

B Cells

32

Which of the following statements regarding the primary versus the secondary immune response is true?

A primary response results when naive lymphocytes are activated, while a secondary response is a result of activating memory cells.

33

Vaccines provide what type of immunity?

artificial active

34

Which of the following are properly matched?

IgG: most abundant antibody

35

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

36

The primary immune response ________.

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

37

Soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.

true

38

What type of cell is the precursor to the helper T cell?

CD4 cell

39

Which of the following activate CD8 cells?

antigen fragments on class I MHC proteins

40

What type of T cell can directly attack and kill other cells, such as virus-infected cells?

cytotoxic T (TC) cells

41

Which of the following are NOT appropriately matched?

helper T cells: destroy infected cells

42

B cell

Forms antibody producing cells

43

Regulatory T cell

Slows or stops the immune response

44

Helper T cell

Absence results in no immune response

45

Cytotoxic T cell

Kills cancer cells and virus infected body cells

46

Memory cell

Enables quick and efficient response to secondary exposure to antigen

47

T-cell activation requires ________.

antigen binding and co-stimulation

48

What occurs if a T cell binds to an antigen and the T cell does NOT receive a co-stimulatory signal?

The T cell enters a state of anergy.

49

Which lymphocytes act as the bridge between the cellular and humoral responses?

helper T cells