ap exam 3 - urinary system

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1

The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes nitrogenous wastes.

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2

It is also a major homeostatic organ because it maintains the electrolyte, fluid and acid-base balance of the blood.

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3

Urine is continuously formed by the kidneys and is routed down the ureters by the mechanism of peristalsis to a storage organ called the bladder

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4

Eventually, the urine is conducted to the body exterior by the urethra.

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5

In the male, the urethra is 20 centimeters long and transports both urine and sperm

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6


The female urethra is 4 centimeters long and transports only urine.

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7


Voiding or emptying the bladder is called micturation

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8

Voiding has both voluntary and involuntary components.

The voluntary sphincter is the external sphincter.

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9

An inability to control this sphincter is referred to as incontinence

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10

Hypertonic

the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside it

** high solute

11

Hypotonic

the concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it

** low solute

12


Isotonic

the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell

13

Osmoregulation

The process of regulating water potential in order to keep fluid and electrolyte balance within a cell or organism relative to the surrounding

14

Osmolarity

The osmotic concentration of a solution expressed as osmoles of solute per liter of solution.

*** affected by solute

More solute more osmotic pressure

Less solute less osmotic pressure

15

Excess potassium ion is eliminated from the body by?

Tubular secretion

16

In the presence of ADH (anti diuretic hormone) one would produce concentrated or diluted urine?

more concentrated

17

Bowman's capsule and the glomerulus make up the?

renal corpuscle

18

Why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in the child under 11⁄2 to 2 years old?

Because they have not yet gained muscle control over their external spincter

19

What events may lead to its occurrence in the adult?

-Spinal cord injury

-emotional problems

-bladder irritability

-or some other pathology of the urinary tract

20

smooth membrane, tightly adherent to the kidney surface on

fibrous capsule

21

portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts

medulla

22

portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures

cortex

23

superficial region of kidney tissue

cortex

24

basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter

renal pelvis

25

a cup-shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid

minor calyx

26

area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids

renal column

27

site of filtrate formation

glomerulus

28

primary site of tubular reabsorption

proximal convoluted tubule

29

secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption

distal convoluted tubule

30

structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis

distal convoluted tubule

31

blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells

peritubular capillaries

32

its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane

glomerular capsule

33

In vertebrates (humans) where is urea produced?

-liver from NH3 and CO2

34

Urea is produced when ammonia (NH 3 ) is combined with……?

CO2

35

How does its high-pressure condition in the glomerulus aid its function of filtrate formation?

The higher the capillary pressure, the more filtrate will be formed.

36

The basic functional unit of the kidney is the?

nephron

37

Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate?

-B lood plasma → contains red and white blood cells, blood proteins, glucose, water, nitrogenous waste and salts.

-Glomerular filtrate → contains everything blood plasma does without most of the blood proteins

38

Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion, and explain its importance in the urine formation process?

- Tubular secretion is the reverse process of tubular reabsorption. Substances such as hydrogen and potassium ions and creatinine move either from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubular cells or from the tubular cells into the filtrate to be disposed of in the urine. This process is important for the disposal of substances not ready in the filtrate and as a device for controlling blood pH

39

Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate?

B lood plasma → contains red and white blood cells, blood proteins, glucose, water, nitrogenous waste and salts.

-Glomerular filtrate → contains everything blood plasma does without most of the blood proteins

40

The outermost layer of kidney tissue is the?

-Renal cortex

41

List components of urine from a healthy person?

-Healthy urine consists of water, ammonia, potassium, hydrogen, little sodium, little creatine, little uric acid and urea and little bilirubin, if any of these substance is present in too much (or to little) quanity then it becomes unhealthy. Substances not normally in urine-glucose, protein, RBC, WBC and hemoglobin.

42

Trace a drop of blood from the time it enters the kidney via the renal artery until it leaves the kidney through the renal vein.

Renal Artery to segmental artery lobar artery interlobar artery arcuate artery interlobular artery afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole peritubular capillary bed interlobular vein arcuate vein interlobar vein

43

In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, ___ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet?

angiotensin II

44

The process of urine formation involves…?

- filtration of the plasma, reabsorption from the filtrate, and the secretion into the filtrate

45

What is important functionally about the specialized epithelium (transitional epithelium) in the bladder?

- The cells can slide past one another giving the tissue the ability to stretch and recoil as the bladder fills and empties

46

Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by?

- Increasing glomerular filtration rate

-Inhibiting rennin and aldosterone secretion

-Inhibiting the action of ADH on the kidney

-Inhibiting NaCl reabsorption by the collecting duct

47

An interplay between calcium reserves in the bone, the rate of absorption, and the rate of excretion reflects calcium homeostasis. Explain this?

...

48

Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone?

parathyroid hormone

49

Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsule to the urethra. Note each microscopic and/or gross structure it passes through in its travels. Name the subdivisions of the renal tubule.

Glomerular Capsule → Proximal Convulated Tubule → Loop of Henle → Distal Convulated Tubule → Collecting Tubule → Papillary Duct → Minor Calyx → Renal Pelvis → Ureter → Bladder → Urethra

50

Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any good physical examination?

Finding "abnormal" constituents in the urine may indicate pathology

51

Presence of glucose in the urine is indication of…?

- Glycosuria

- causes could be excess carbohydrate intake of diabetes mellitus

52

Substances larger than ________ are normally not allowed to pass through the filtration membrane?

albumin

53

In the presence of ADH (anti diuretic hormone)urine production increases or decreases?

*** decreases

54

Which has a greater specific gravity: 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water?

Explain your answer why?

- URINE; BECAUSE IT CONTAINS DISSOLVED SOLUTES, WHICH ARE NOT FOUND IN DISTILLED WATER AND ADD TO THE DENSITY OF THE SAMPLE

55

How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH?

alkaline

56

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by?

the ureters

57

Name the primary nitrogenous waste product in humans?

Urea

58

Glucose and albumin are both normally absent in the urine, but the reason for their exclusion differs.

Explain the reason for the absence of glucose?

Explain the reason for the absence of albumin?

...

59

Name the three major nitrogenous wastes found in the urine?

Uric acid

-Urea

-creatine

60

List functions of the kidneys?

-They filter blood plasma

-They regulate blood volume and pressure by eliminating or conserving water

-They regulate the osmolarity of the body fluids by controlling the relative amounts of water and solutes

-They secrete rennin

-They secrete erythropoietin

-They collaborate with the lungs to regulate the concentration of CO2 and the acid–base balance

-They carry out the final step in synthesizing calcitriol and thereby contribute to calcium homeostasis

61

The blood-filtering structure of the kidney is called the?

Glomerulus

62

The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is?

-absorption of ions

-organic molecules

-Vitamins

-water

63

Why is glucose in the urine an indicator of diabetes mellitus?

-when blood glucose is very high, the filtered glucose occupies all the transport carriers and it is no longer reabsorbed

64

Nitrogenous waste product is a by product of….?

Protein metabolism

65

The expanded end of the ureter forms the?

-renal pelvis

66

The innermost layer of kidney tissue is the?

-renal medulla

67

Tubular reabsorption involves what kind of transportation?

- active transport

-facilitated diffusion

-cotransport

-countertransport

68

What type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased?

The afferent arterioles would constrict

69

A glomerulus is?

-the network of capillaries found inside the corpuscle

70

The urine-forming units of the kidney are the?

- nephrons

71

What is Gout?

a common type of arthritis

72

What leads to Gout i.e. what is the cause of Gout?

-Gout is caused by a build-up of uric acid in the body. Uric acid is a waste product that is produced during the process of metabolism (when the body breaks down food to use as energy).

73

Byproduct of protein catabolism that constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste is…..?

-urea

74

The function of calcitonin is to?

Decreases Blood Calcium by causing Ca to move from blood into bone

75

What would be the effect on urine output if sodium channels in the tubule cells were inhibited?

The volume would increase

76

All urine specimens become alkaline and cloudy on standing at room temperature. Explain why?

-This is a result of bacterial metabolism of urinary components

77

Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion, and explain its importance in the urine formation process?

- Tubular secretion is the reverse process of tubular reabsorption. Substances such as hydrogen and potassium ions and creatinine move either from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubular cells or from the tubular cells into the filtrate to be disposed of in the urine. This process is important for the disposal of substances not ready in the filtrate and as a device for controlling blood pH

78

A renal pyramid voids urine into?

the minor calyx

79

The process of filtration occurs at?

corpuscle of nephron

80

Which of the following processes in urine formation is important for regulating blood pH: Filtration; Secretion; reabsorption? Why?

-Secretion

81

The functional unit of kidney is called what?

-nephron

82

What is the advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes as urea rather than as ammonia?

-urea is less toxic than ammonia

83

List factors that contribute(s) to the higher filtration rate in the glomerular capillaries compared with other capillary beds?

  1. glomerular capillaries are fenestrated
  2. the diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole
  3. the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is very porous
84

How would eating a high-protein diet affect filtration?

Due to higher colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerular blood, the net filtration pressure would be lower and less filtrate would form

85

Blood plasma is filtered in which portion of the nephron?

- renal corpuscle

86

How urinary system does regulate body pH?

...

87

List substances that are found in plasma but would not be found in normal filtrate?

proteins

88

The portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle is the?

-proximal convoluted tubule

89

Drinking too much alcohol results in a headache the next day. Why does this happen?

-Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion

90

Conical-shaped structures that are located in the renal medulla are called?

-pyramids

91

What is the function of reabsorption?

...

92

Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by…… process?

-selective reabsorption

93

Substances and molecules move out of capillaries into the corpuscle space due to….?

-pressure differences

94

The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule (corpuscle space) is mainly due high pressure in the……?

glomerulus capillaries

95

Why is the osmolarity of medullary fluid in the kidney almost four times higher than the osmolarity of plasma?

- loop of Henle acts as a countercurrent multiplier and contributes solutes to the interstitial fluid & urea is recycled from the collecting duct and is transported to the interstitial fluid

** anatomical structure of loop of Henle

96
  1. Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the….convoluted tubule?

the proximal convoluted tubule

97

How does ADH contribute to the formation of concentrated urine?

-ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquaporins into the luminal membrane

98

When stimulated by aldosterone, the reabsorption of Na+ is increased along which tubule of nephron?

-the distal tubule

99

Increased ADH secretion is most likely when…….?

-sweating-induced dehydration increases plasma osmolarity

100

Why human urine more acidic is i.e. what makes it acidic?

Presence of hydrogen ions

101

What is the advantage of urine being acidic?

To act as a nonspecific defense

102

Why the kidneys have one of the highest metabolic rates of all body organs?

-it operates an extensive set of active-transport ion pumps

103

Alcoholic beverages, increased urine excretion because….?

-inhibited secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

104

What role do the vasa recta play in urine formation?

-it removes solutes and water

-balances solute reabsorption and osmosis in the medulla

105

The portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct is the?

-distal convoluted tubule

106

When considering drug administration, why is it important to know the renal clearance rate of the drug?

-It dictates the dosage and frequency of administration of drugs

107

Suppose 3 friends decide to an experiment on themselves. One person drinks 1 liter water, a second person drinks 1 liter of beer, and a third drinks 1 liter of concentrated salt solution. They monitor their urine production for several hours. Explain who will you expect to have the greatest and who will you expect to have the least amounts of urine, respectively? Explain why?

beer- most urine

salt - less urine

108

The process of voiding the bladder is called?

micturition

109

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) functions at the cellular level by causing an increase in the number of…..?

- aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells

110

The largest solute component of urine…….?

-Urea

111

Urine is produced by which organ of urinary system?

kidneys

112

A patient feels radiating pain from the side of her body to the anterior abdominal wall. An MRI shows a bulging renal pelvis. Which is the most likely cause?

-A kidney stone lodged in the ureter

113

What features of the bladder predispose it to being able to stretch and relax repeatedly?

- the walls are highly folded into rugae and the epithelium is transitional

114

What is the functional difference between a male urethra and a female urethra?

...

115

The “U” shape structure of the nephron tubules is called?

...

116

Micturition is another term for?

the elimination of urine

117

Aldosterone promotes ……..retention in the kidneys?

sodium retention

118

Explain why the glomerulus is such a high-pressure capillary bed?

-Both fed and drained by arterioles; the afferent arterioles has a larger diameter than the efferent

119

How does its high-pressure condition aid its function of filtrate formation?

-the higher the capillary pressure, the more filtrate will be formed