exam 3 metabolism

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1

The majority of the food we ingest is ultimately used to synthesize _________?

ATP

2

A(n) ______ nutrient is one that the body cannot synthesize rapidly enough to be useful?

Essential

3

A triglyceride consists of three fatty acids and….?

Glycerol

4

During glycolysis a molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of?

Two Pyruvic

5

Name 3 monosaccharide?

  1. Glucose
  2. Fructose
  3. Galactose
6

Which nutrient provides energy for cells with modest energy demands and for skeletal muscle when energy demands are low?

Lipids

7

Name a disaccharide?

  1. Sucrose
  2. Lactose
  3. Maltose
8

The function of the citric acid cycle is to remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to?

Deliver hydrogen atoms to coenzymes embedded in the inner membrane of mitochondrion

9

Name two polysaccharide used for energy?

  1. Starch
  2. Glycogen
10

Lipoproteins, containing triglycerides manufactured in the liver, are transported to peripheral tissues and are called?

VLDL

11

Why gender affects MBR?

Men Have a higher BMR because they have more muscle therefore burn more calories

12

The major metabolic function for most vitamins is that they assist enzymes by serving as _________?

Coenzymes

13

What is the true function of molecular oxygen acquired by the lungs?

  1. In the present of oxygen pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle.
  2. O2 serves as the final electron acceptor for the oxidation of food molecules
14

The TCA cycle must turn ________ times to completely metabolize the pyruvic acid produced from one glucose molecule?

Twice

15

Predict what would happen to ATP production if a virus pierced holes in the inner mitochondrial membrane?

ATP production would decrease because a hydrogen ion gradient could not be established.

16

Which of the following processes may occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions:

  • glycolysis, Krebs cycle, TCA, citric acid cycle, electron transport system, intermediate or transition step?

glycolysis

17

Which of the following nutrient(s) can enter the Krebs cycle: glucose, amino acid, pyruvic acid?

Pyruvic Acid

18

What happens to the carbon molecules in the pyruvic acid that goes through the TCA cycle?

They become carbon dioxide

19

Why don’t the electrons carried by NADH in the cytosol generate as many ATP as the electrons carried by NADH in the mitochondrial matrix?

The cytosolic electrons must be shuttled to the matrix at a loss of energy.

20

The transition step links glycolysis to the….?

TCA Cycle

21

The process whereby excess glucose is stored in cells is called ______?

  1. Glycogenesis
    1. Synthesis of glycogen from excess glucose
22

Which is the healthiest ratio: high HDL: low LDL or high LDL: low HDL?

  1. High HDL: Low LDL
  2. HDL (Good) and LDL (Bad)
23

The process of converting excess glucose to glycogen is called?

Glycogenesis

24

_____________ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ___________ happens in the mitochondrion?

  1. Glycolysis
  2. Beta Oxidation
25

Excess glucose that is not used for immediate energy is converted to glycogen via a process called?

Glycogenesis

26

____________ is a product of glycolysis?

  1. 2 NADH
  2. 2 Pyruvic acid
  3. 2 ATP
27

Glucose molecules are combined to form glycogen in a process called?

Clycogenesis

28

The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is the….?

Oxygen

29

The function of the citric acid cycle is to remove ………….atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes?

Hydrogen

30

Insulin promotes formation of glycogen by a process called?

Glycogenesis

31

Glucose in excess of the body's immediate needs is usually converted to glycogen by the process of?

Glycogenesis

32

Explain why beta-oxidation yield more energy than complete metabolism of glucose?

Glucose produces 36/38 ATPs. The removal of 2 carbons in a fatty acid chain produces an average of 17 ATP

33

Pyruvic acid is the product of ____________?

Glucose

34

Glucose in excess of the body's immediate needs is usually converted to?

Glycogen

35

For a marathon runner, what benefit is there to eating a diet of 75% carbohydrates and reducing the workout for 3 to 4 days before competition?

Muscles will store a higher than normal levels of glycogen

36

Minerals are organic or inorganic molecules/elements?

Inorganic

37

Vitamins are organic or inorganic compounds?

Organic

38

Beta-oxidation occurs in the?

Mitochondria

39

Oxygen is the final electron acceptor during the …..?

Aerobic Respiration

40

Why isn’t it sufficient to reduce only dietary fat intake to prevent new fatty deposits from forming in the body?

Acetyl CoA, an intermediate in glucose metabolism, is also the starting point for fatty acid synthesis

41

The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called?

Metabolism

42

Which of the following molecules is produced in the process of detoxifying harmful ammonia?

  1. Urea
    • Ammonia is combined with CO2 to produce Urea.
43

Cells of the ______ system most require continuous glucose?

-Nervous System

44

What is the primary process by which insulin is released after ingesting a meal?

Insulin is secreted in direct response to high blood glucose.

45

Beta-oxidation requires, coenzyme A (CoA), FAD and ____?

NAD

46

In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is metabolized releases net energy to form how many molecules of ATP?

2 ATP

47

Why are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered “good”?

  1. They absorb excess cholesterol from cells.
    • They are released by the liver absorb the excess cholesterol that was not used by the cell. HDL delivers the cholesterol back to the liver i.e. HDL are lipoproteins, carrying mostly cholesterol and phospholipids from peripheral tissues to the liver
48

In the ETS, ________ accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another?

Coenzyme

49

The basal metabolic rate can most effectively be defined as the __________?

Amount of energy needed to maintain life

50

The general term used to describe the anabolic and catabolic reactions in a cell is?

  1. Metabolism
51

Which of the following nutrient used almost exclusively for ATP production: amino acid, fatty acid, glucose?

Glucose

52

Which of the following nutrient form enzyme and some hormones: amino acid, fatty acid, glucose?

Amino acids

53

Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic or anaerobic respiration?

aerobic

54

Pyruvate can be metabolized along two major routes. They are?

Oxidation and Reduction

55

Beta-oxidation requires, NAD, FAD and ____?

Coenzyme A

56

Name two essential fatty acids?

  • linolenic acid (omega 3 fatty acid)
  • linoleic acid (omega 6 fatty acid)
57

Which of the following is a lipid that is not used for energy: Triglyceride, Fatty acid, Cholesterol, Saturated fat?

Cholesterol

58

What is lipogenesis?

process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids.

59

Lipogenesis generally begins with?

Acetyle-CoA

60

The primary function of cellular respiration is to?

break down food molecules and generate ATP

61

The end product of glycolysis is?

  • 2 ATP
  • 2 NADH
  • 2 pyruvate
62

Lipoproteins, carrying mostly cholesterol and phospholipids from the liver to the peripheral tissues are called?

LDL

63

Which lipids are routinely used for energy?

Triglycerides

64

Lipid is synthesized from Acetyl CoA via…….process?

lipogenesis

65

Which lipoprotein transports cholesterol to the liver for degradation?

HDL

66

The TCA cycle begins with the formation of a molecule of?

Citric Acid

67

In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to a_____?

organic acid (non-amino acid molecule)

68

A triglyceride consists of?

Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids

69

What is the primary role of the TCA cycle in the production of ATP?

transfer electrons from substrates to coenzymes

70

The process of deamination produces?

Ammonia

71

Which is the healthiest ratio? high chylomicron: low LDL or high HDL: low LDL or high LDL: low chylomicron?

High HDL: Low LDL

72

A triglyceride consists of glycerol and ….?

3 fatty acids

73

The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during which processes of metabolism?

The Citric Acid Cycle

74

During lipolysis triglycerides are broken down into _______ and _________?

  • 3 Fatty Acids
  • Glycerol
75

Urea is formed in the?

Liver

76

Ammonia is byproduct of -------metabolism?

Protein

77

Water is produced during which processes of metabolism?

Electron transport

78

What is the electron transport system’s role in the generation of ATP?

Creates a concentration gradient across the mitochondria which leads to production of ATP

79

The most abundant nitrogenous waste in blood is urea, which is produced by the combination of ammonia with …..?

CO2

80

Lipoproteins, carrying mostly cholesterol and phospholipids from peripheral tissues to the liver, are called?

High Density Lipoportiens

81

Beta-oxidation requires coenzyme A, NAD, and ____?

FAD

82

How does a decrease in the level of cytoplasmic NAD affect ATP production in mitochondria? Why?

Means that you don't need much ATP MEANING you don't need energy. Less glycolysis more fat

83

NADH produced by glycolysis in skeletal muscle fibers leads to production of two ATP molecules in mitochondria, but NADH produced by glycolysis in cardiac muscle cells leads to production of three ATP molecules. Why?

Different intermediaries

84

Linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid are examples of ______ fatty acids?

Essential Fatty acids

85

Ammonia is a toxic substance that is converted to……by the liver?

Urea

86

Why is oxidative phosphorylation the most important mechanism for generating ATP?

It requires less energy than other mechanisms

87

Why are proteins an impractical source of quick energy, a “last ditch” source of energy?

Proteins are more difficult to break apart than are carbohydrates or lipids; NH4, a byproduct of protein catabolism, is toxic; Protein catabolism threatens homeostasis.

88

Why does a diet that is deficient in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) affect protein metabolism?

an important coenzyme in deaminating and transaminating amino acids in cells, would interfere with the body's ability to metbolize proteins.

89

Why are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered beneficial?

Because they remove excess cholesterol from cells

90

Beta-oxidation is the process that breaks down fatty acids into two-carbon fragments that can be metabolized by the?

TCA cycle

91

The most abundant nitrogenous waste in blood is urea, which is produced by the combination of ammonia with …..?

CO2

92

Why are LDLs considered “bad cholesterol”?

Because they send the cholesterol to the cells without regulation and The excess cholesterol that is not used by the cell diffuses out of the cell and enters bloodstream

93

The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called?

Metabolism

94

Why cells synthesize new organic components?

  • To carry out structural maintenance or repairs
  • To support growth
  • To produce secretions
  • To store nutrient reserves
95

List macronutrients and their subunits?

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Monosaccharides
  • Amino Acids
  • Fatty acid and glycerol
96

Lipoproteins, containing triglycerides manufactured in the liver, are transported to peripheral tissues and are called?

VLDL

97

Cells perform catabolism to generate ATP, which can be used for?

Energy

98

beta-oxidation is the process that breaks down fatty acids into ________fragments that can be metabolized by the TCA cycle?

2 carbons

99

Cells must synthesize new organic compounds to?

  • To carry out structural maintenance or repairs
  • To support growth
  • To produce secretions
  • To store nutrient reserves