Chapter 21: Blood Vessels and Circulation

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1

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________

arterioles

arteries

tunica intima

capillaries

capillaries

2

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

venous pressure greater than arterial pressure

smooth muscle in the tunica media

right ventricle

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

3

Elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure __________.

raises arterial pressure

forces more fluid between endothelial cells

raises heart rate

lowers heart rate

forces more fluid between endothelial cells

4

Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

medulla oblongata

hypothalamus

thalamus

pons

medulla oblongata

5

Hemorrhage triggers all of these responses except __________.

an increase in erythropoiesis

an increase in urine production

an increase in heart rate

release of the venous reserve

an increase in urine production

6

The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.

deoxygenated; to

oxygenated; to

oxygenated; from

deoxygenated; from

deoxygenated; to

7

Which of these arteries does not originate on the aortic arch?

left carotid

left subclavian

coronary

brachiocephalic

coronary

8

Which of these arteries does not originate on the abdominal aorta?iliac

femoral

splenic

renal

femoral

9

The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the __________.

umbilical strand

ligamentum arteriosum

foramen ovale

fossa ovalis

ligamentum arteriosum

10

All of these changes in the cardiovascular system are commonly seen in aging except __________.

decrease in arterial wall stiffness

decrease in cardiac output

decrease in valve efficiency

decrease in hematocrit

decrease in arterial wall stiffness

11

Compared to arteries, veins

have a pleated endothelium.

have thinner walls.

hold their shape better when cut.

have more smooth muscle in their tunica media.

are more elastic.

have thinner walls.

12

Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the output side to the input side of the cardiovascular flow circuit.

1. venules
2. arterioles
3. capillaries
4. elastic arteries
5. medium veins
6. large veins
7. muscular arteries

6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4

7, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

2, 7, 6, 3, 1, 5, 6

5, 6, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4

4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

13

Capillaries that have a complete lining are called

fenestrated capillaries.

sinusoidal capillaries.

vasa vasorum.

continuous capillaries.

sinusoids.

continuous capillaries.

14

The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called

veins.

venules.

arteries.

arterioles.

capillaries.

veins.

15

Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?

internal elastic membrane

tunica media

external elastic membrane

tunica externa

tunica intima

tunica intima

16

Venous valves are responsible for

preventing blood from re-entering a ventricle.

channeling blood away from the heart.

regulating blood pressure in veins.

preventing anterograde flow.

channeling blood toward the heart.

channeling blood toward the heart.

17

The layer of the arteriole wall that can produce vasoconstriction is the

tunica media.

tunica adventitia.

tunica externa.

tunica intima.

tunica mater.

tunica media.

18

A sample of tissue displays many large flattened spaces lined by fenestrated endothelium. Blood moves slowly through these spaces. This tissue sample most likely came from the

liver.

heart.

lungs.

kidneys.

skin.

liver.

19

Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include which of the following?

lack of exercise

obesity

high cholesterol

smoking

All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

20

What structure do RBCs move through single file?

capillary

venule

vein

arteriole

artery

capillary

21

Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in

arteries.

veins.

venules.

capillaries.

arterioles.

capillaries.

22

Which kind of vessel is also called a resistance vessel?

arteriole

vein

artery

venule

capillary

arteriole

23

Blood flow through a capillary is controlled by the

plexus.

vasa vasorum.

thoroughfare channel.

precapillary sphincter.

venule.

precapillary sphincter.

24

The brachial and femoral arteries are examples of which type of artery?arteriolar

connective

elastic

muscular

vascular

muscular

25

Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except

valves in the veins preventing the backward flow of blood.

the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.

the respiratory pump.

muscular compression.

pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.

pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.

26

Which part of the vascular system functions as a blood reservoir and contains over 60% of the body's blood?

veins

systemic arterioles

arteries

capillaries

pulmonary arteries

veins

27

A(n) ________ is a bulge, or weakened wall, of an artery.

aneurysm

28

Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the

blood viscosity.

osmolarity of interstitial fluids.

turbulence.

length of a blood vessel.

blood vessel diameter.

osmolarity of interstitial fluids.

29

As blood travels from arteries to veins,

flow becomes turbulent.

diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller.

pressure builds.

viscosity increases.

pressure drops.

pressure drops.

30

Blood pressure is determined by

estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff.

measuring the force of contraction of the left ventricle.

listening carefully to the pulse.

measuring the size of the pulse.

estimating the degree of turbulence in a partly closed vessel.

estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff.

31

In what vessel is blood pressure the highest?

artery

venule

arteriole

vein

capillary

artery

32

Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased

blood volume.

force of cardiac contraction.

cardiac output.

peripheral resistance.

parasympathetic innervation.

parasympathetic innervation.

33

Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries?

both decreased plasma albumin and increased blood hydrostatic pressure

increased plasma albumen

increased blood hydrostatic pressure

increased tissue hydrostatic pressure

decreased plasma albumen

both decreased plasma albumin and increased blood hydrostatic pressure

34

Blood pressure is lowest in the

veins.

capillaries.

arterioles.

arteries.

venules.

veins.

35

If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be

four times greater.

doubled.

halved.

1/4 as much.

unchanged.

doubled.

36

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance, except

elevated levels of epinephrine.

irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques.

elevated hematocrit.

increased sympathetic stimulation.

vasodilation.

vasodilation.

37

Edema may occur when

endothelial permeability goes up.

the plasma concentration of protein is reduced.

blood pressure is high.

capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated.

All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

38

When a person rises quickly from a sitting position,

reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs.

the carotid baroreceptors become less active.

venous return is decreased.

heart rate is reflexively elevated.

All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

39

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure.

blood

circulatory

critical closing

mean arterial

pulse

pulse

40

In comparison to a vessel with a large diameter, a vessel with a small diameter has

a greater resistance to blood flow.

the same amount of pressure as resistance.

a higher blood pressure.

less resistance to blood flow.

a greater blood flow.

a greater resistance to blood flow.

41

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure.

circulatory

pulse

blood

critical closing

mean arterial

pulse

42

Which of the following are characteristics of cardiovascular regulation?

blood flow changes to match tissue responses

blood flow through tissues meets the demand for oxygen

changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure

blood flow through tissues meets the demand for nutrients

All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

43

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased

cardiac output.

parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.

sympathetic stimulation of the heart.

blood flow to the lungs.

heart rate.

parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.

44

Vickie has a tumor that secretes excess amounts of the hormone aldosterone. Because of the elevated level of hormone, she exhibits

increased blood pressure.

decreased blood volume.

polycythemia.

increased body stores of sodium ion.

both an increase in blood pressure and an increase in stored sodium ion.

both an increase in blood pressure and an increase in stored sodium ion.

45

Which of the following conditions is least likely to lead to renin release?

increased sympathetic activity

hypertension

vasospasm of the renal arteries

renal artery thrombus

circulatory shock

hypertension