Ch 16 addition Flashcards


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1

85) Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?

  1. A) occipital lobe
  2. B) basal nuclei
  3. C) hippocampus
  4. D) insula
  5. E) prefrontal lobe

C) hippocampus

2

86) Mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involve all of the following except

  1. A) increased release of neurotransmitters.
  2. B) anterograde amnesia.
  3. C) the formation of additional synaptic connections.
  4. D) the formation of memory engrams.
  5. E) facilitation at synapses.

B) anterograde amnesia.

3

87) Long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called ________ memories.

  1. A) tertiary
  2. B) reflexive
  3. C) consolidated
  4. D) multilobar
  5. E) secondary

A) tertiary

4

88) Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

  1. A) memory conversion.
  2. B) anterograde amnesia.
  3. C) memory programming.
  4. D) memory consolidation.
  5. E) memory engraving.

D) memory consolidation.

5

89) The conscious state is maintained by the

  1. A) prefrontal lobes.
  2. B) general interpretive area.
  3. C) limbic system.
  4. D) reticular activating system.
  5. E) nucleus gracilis.

D) reticular activating system.

6

Based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the

  1. A) medulla.
  2. B) pons.
  3. C) midbrain.
  4. D) diencephalon.
  5. E) cerebrum.

C) midbrain

7

91) A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is

  1. A) somnolence.
  2. B) sleep.
  3. C) stupor.
  4. D) coma.
  5. E) a chronic vegetative state.

B) sleep.

8

A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is

  1. A) somnolence.
  2. B) sleep.
  3. C) stupor.
  4. D) coma.
  5. E) a chronic vegetative state.

D) coma.

9

The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ________ waves.

  1. A) alpha
  2. B) beta
  3. C) theta
  4. D) delta
  5. E) gamma

A) alpha

10

After arousal by a sensory stimulus, consciousness can be maintained by positive feedback, because of activity in the

  1. A) cerebral cortex.
  2. B) basal nuclei.
  3. C) sensory pathways.
  4. D) motor pathways.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

11

The regulation of awake-asleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. The one that favors alertness is ________ and the other promoting deep sleep is ________.

  1. A) acetylcholine; serotonin
  2. B) serotonin; norepinephrine
  3. C) norepinephrine; serotonin
  4. D) dopamine; GABA
  5. E) glutamate; serotonin

C) norepinephrine; serotonin

12

Hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by

  1. A) stimulating receptors for norepinephrine.
  2. B) blocking acetylcholine receptors.
  3. C) increasing the production of GABA.
  4. D) stimulating serotonin receptors.
  5. E) mimicking the action of dopamine.

D) stimulating serotonin receptors.

13

The inherited brain disorder Huntington's disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. One neurotransmitter is ________ and the other is ________.

  1. A) acetylcholine; serotonin
  2. B) serotonin; norepinephrine
  3. C) norepinephrine; serotonin
  4. D) acetylcholine; GABA
  5. E) glutamate; serotonin

D) acetylcholine; GABA

14

What mental illness is often improved by drugs that block serotonin re-uptake?

  1. A) agitation
  2. B) hallucinations
  3. C) depression
  4. D) Parkinson's
  5. E) Huntington's

C) depression

15

An age-related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called

  1. A) delirium agitans.
  2. B) senile dementia.
  3. C) persistent vegetative state.
  4. D) somnolence of the aged.
  5. E) progressive cerebral dysfunction.

B) senile dementia.

16

Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include

  1. A) reduction in brain size and weight.
  2. B) decrease in the number of neurons.
  3. C) decreased blood flow to the brain.
  4. D) changes in synaptic organization in the brain.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

17

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by all of the following except that it

  1. A) is the most common cause of senile dementia.
  2. B) is characterized by a progressive loss of memory.
  3. C) has a clear genetic basis.
  4. D) is associated with the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.
  5. E) may be associated with damage to the nucleus basalis.

C) has a clear genetic basis.

18

17) During ________ sleep, the entire body relaxes and the activity of the cerebral cortex is at a minimum.

  1. A) REM
  2. B) deep
  3. C) beta
  4. D) stage 1
  5. E) paradoxical

B) deep

19

During ________ sleep, dreaming occurs.

  1. A) REM
  2. B) deep
  3. C) beta
  4. D) stage 1
  5. E) stage 2

A) REM