Microbiology chapter 4 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by Erica_M__Brown
1,171 views
updated 5 years ago by Erica_M__Brown
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

How do most of the Archaea live?

  1. They live at high temperatures.
  2. They produce methane gas.
  3. They grow in extremely acidic environments.
  4. All of the above are correct

All of the above are correct

2

Which of the following characteristics is similar for both Bacteria and Archaea?

  1. Circular chromosome
  2. chlorophyll-based photosynthesis
  3. presence of histones organizing the DNA
  4. All of the above are similar.
  1. Circular chromosome
3

Which of the following characteristics is similar for both Archaea and Eukarya?

  1. Circular chromosome form
  2. chlorophyll-based photosynthesis
  3. presence of histones organizing the DNA
  4. All of the above are similar.

presence of histones organizing the DNA

4

Bacteria lack __________ in the cell cytoplasm.

  1. ribosomes
  2. water
  3. plasmids
  4. mitochondria

mitochondria

5

What is the term for a set of organisms or lineage that are all derived from one specific ancestor?

  1. genome
  2. genus
  3. clade
  4. class

clade

6

Which of the following best illustrates the function of bacteria?

  1. They digest sewage into simple chemicals.
  2. They extract nitrogen from the air and make if available to plants for protein production.
  3. They bread down the remains of all that dies and recycle the carbon and other elements.
  4. They do all of the above.

They do all of the above.

7

All the following characteristics apply to the prokaryotes except

  1. they lack a nucleus.
  2. they reproduce only by mitosis.
  3. they are composed of single cells.
  4. they include the bacteria.

they reproduce only by mitosis.

8

This group of bacteria are the gram negative bacteria and includes most human pathogens.

  1. Proteobacteria
  2. Firmicutes
  3. Cyanobacteria
  4. Chlamydiae

Proteobacteria

9

In the endosymbiotic theory, it is likely that the mitochondria of the Eukarya came from an ancestor of this clade. Which one was it?

  1. Proteobacteria
  2. Firmicutes
  3. Cyanobacteria
  4. Chlamydiae

Proteobacteria

10

Rickettsiae are generally transmitted

  1. by contaminated food and water.
  2. by respiratory droplets from the nose and throat.
  3. by direct contact such as kissing.
  4. by arthropods such as ticks and lice.

by arthropods such as ticks and lice.

11

This is a group of gram positive bacteria with thick skin, referring to their cell wall structure. Which clade is it?

  1. Proteobacteria
  2. Firmicutes
  3. Cyanobacteria
  4. Chlamydiae

Firmicutes

12

This is a group of photosynthesizing prokaryotes called cyanobacteria. What domain do they belong to?

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Prokarya

Bacteria

13

Thermophiles need ______________ to grow.

  1. oxygen
  2. available salt
  3. High pH
  4. high temperatures

high temperatures

14

This group of bacteria are so small that they can't be seen with the light microscope. Most species are pathogens and have to be cultured on living cells. What clade is this?

  1. Proteobacteria
  2. Firmicutes
  3. Cyanobacteria
  4. C`

Chlamydiae

15

An organism that grows at 75° C is classified as a

  1. mesophile.
  2. psychrophile.
  3. hyperthermophile.
  4. facultative organism.

hyperthermophile.

16

An acidophile would grow best at a pH of

  1. 2.
  2. 6.
  3. 9.
  4. 12.

2

17

Extreme halophiles live in environments that have high levels of

  1. temperature
  2. pressure
  3. pH
  4. salt

salt

18

The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus appears microscopically as

  1. a spirillum with polar flagella.
  2. an encapsulated rod.
  3. a curved rod with pili.
  4. a grape-like cluster of spheres.

a grape-like cluster of spheres.

19

Which one of the following is not a variation of cocci arrangement?

  1. Spirillum
  2. Sarcina
  3. Diplococcus
  4. Streptococcus

Spirillum

20

A bacterial arrangement called a sarcina has which of the following morphological shapes?

  1. Rods in clusters
  2. Spheres in long chains
  3. Spheres in packets of eight
  4. Rods in long chains

Spheres in packets of eight

21

Spherical organisms arranged in irregular groups of cells that resemble bunches of grapes are referred to as

  1. staphylococci.
  2. streptococci.
  3. sarcinae.
  4. cocci.

staphylococci.

22

An example of a bacillus or rod shaped bacterium is

  1. Streptococcus lactis
  2. Treponema pallidum
  3. Salmonella typhi
  4. Vibrio cholerae

Salmonella typhi

23

An example of a bacillus or rod shaped bacterium is

  1. Streptococcus lactis
  2. Treponema pallidum
  3. Salmonella typhi
  4. Vibrio cholerae

Treponema pallidum

24

An example of spiral bacteria that can be curved, helical or spiral shaped is

  1. Streptococcus lactis
  2. Salmonella typhi
  3. Clostridium tetani
  4. Vibrio cholerae

Vibrio cholerae

25

An organism having fimbriae has the advantage over one that lacks fimbriae because

  1. it can move actively.
  2. it can obtain nutrients from beef broth.
  3. it can be stained easily.
  4. it can attach to specific surfaces.

it can attach to specific surfaces.

26

Fimbriae protrude from the surface of most

  1. gram negative bacteria.
  2. gram positive bacteria.
  3. acid fast bacteria.
  4. all of the above are equal in the possession of fimbriae.

gram negative bacteria.

27

All the following apply to pili except

  1. they are composed of protein.
  2. they are found primarily in gram-positive bacteria.
  3. they have no function in motility.
  4. they anchor bacteria to surfaces.

they are found primarily in gram-positive bacteria.

28

Which of the following structures are used by some bacteria to exchange genetic information through conjugation?

  1. pilli
  2. flagella
  3. cilia
  4. fimbriae

pilli

29

All of the following are characteristics of the bacterial flagellum except

  1. It is composed of flagellin.
  2. It has a hook-like insertion to a basal body in the cell wall.
  3. It is used in conjugation.
  4. Counterclockwise rotation moves bacteria forward.

It is used in conjugation.

30

Which one of the following does not apply to the bacterial glycocalyx?

  1. It allows the organism to resist drying
  2. It is composed of carbohydrates
  3. It is enclosed by the cell wall
  4. It may allow an organism to resist phagocytosis

It may allow an organism to resist phagocytosis

31

A thin, loosely bound glycocalyx is referred to as a

  1. capsule.
  2. slime layer.
  3. biofilm.
  4. cell envelope.

slime layer.

32

Cell wall and glycocalyx comprise part of the

  1. cell envelope.
  2. cell membrane.
  3. bacterial capsule
  4. endospore.

cell envelope.

33

The cell wall contains a rigid macromolecule that is known as

  1. teichoic acid.
  2. penicillin.
  3. dextran.
  4. peptidoglycan.

peptidoglycan.

34

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is found in the

  1. gram-negative outer membrane.
  2. gram-positive cell wall.
  3. periplasmic space.
  4. inclusion granules.

gram-negative outer membrane.

35

Endotoxins are located in the

  1. outer row of LPS.
  2. periplasmic region.
  3. plasma membrane.
  4. pili.

plasma membrane.outer row of LPS.

36

Lysozyme and penicillin are similar in that both

  1. are chains of sugars.
  2. are produced by gram-positive bacteria.
  3. act on the bacterial cell wall.
  4. dissolve the bacterial capsule.

act on the bacterial cell wall.

37

All the following are functions of the bacterial cell membrane except

  1. lends rigidity to the cell.
  2. site of enzymes for energy production in the cell.
  3. enclosure for the cytoplasm.
  4. control of passage of biological molecules into the cytoplasm.

lends rigidity to the cell.

38

Penicillin is an antibiotic that prevents

  1. cell membrane transport.
  2. ribosomes from making proteins.
  3. cell walls from being formed.
  4. flagella from being formed.

cell walls from being formed.

39

The peptidoglycan of a bacterium

  1. is embedded within the capsule.
  2. are affected by penicillin if it is present.
  3. is part of the cell membrane.
  4. is found in gram-positive bacteria only.

are affected by penicillin if it is present.

40

The fluid mosaic model best describes

  1. the ability of bacteria to solubilize protein.
  2. the structure of the cell membrane.
  3. the ability of bacteria to move in liquid solutions.
  4. the structure of the capsule.

the structure of the cell membrane.

41

Which one of the following is not a component of the bacterial cytoplasm?

  1. Ribosome
  2. Chromosome
  3. Peptidoglycan
  4. Plasmid

Peptidoglycan

42

Describe a bacterial chromosome.

  1. It is haploid.
  2. It is usually a circular chromosome in a closed loop.
  3. It doesn't undergo mitosis or meiosis.
  4. All of the above are correct.

All of the above are correct.

43

Small molecules of DNA that exist in bacteria as independent circular units are known as

  1. chromosomes.
  2. nucleoids.
  3. plasmids.
  4. nucleoli.

plasmids.

44

Bacterial ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes. They have the same function of

  1. assembling protein.
  2. making lipids and polysaccharides.
  3. participating in cell division.
  4. All of the above are correct.

assembling protein.

45

What are the small storage structures found in the cytoplasm of some prokaryotic cells?

  1. the nucleus.
  2. mitochondria.
  3. metachromatic granules
  4. All of the above are correct.

metachromatic granules

46

Some aquatic and marine prokaryotes have an ability to float on the surface due to

  1. less cytoplasm than other cells.
  2. a faster metabolism.
  3. they are made of lighter materials.
  4. gas vesicles that make them lighter.

gas vesicles that make them lighter.

47

gas vesicles that make them lighter.____ are protein structures that anchor bacteria to specific tissue

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Pili

48

_____ are a whip-like appendages that permit motility.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Flagella

49

_____ serve as a buffer to the environment.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Capsules

50

_____ are many times the diameter of the cell.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Flagella

51

_____ are composed of polysaccharides and small proteins.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Capsules

52

_____ provide resistance to phagocytosis.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Capsules

53

_____ prevent environmental nutrients from flowing away.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Capsules

54

_____ have hook-like shaft and basal body.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Flagella

55

_____ are found on gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Pili

56

_____ are sometimes called fimbriae.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Pili

57

_____ are used for chemotaxis.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Flagella

58

_____ tips have a protein called adhesin.

  1. Flagella
  2. Capsules
  3. Pili

Pili

59

_____ Gram (+) cell wall

Rigid outer boundary

60

_____ Glycocalyx

Loose fibrous layer on cell; attachment

61

_____ Membrane

Transports food into, and wastes out of, the cell

62

_____ Plasmid

contains a few genes; not essential for cell

63

_____ Ribosome

site of protein synthesis

64

_____ Cytosol

fluid matrix for cell metabolism

65

_____ Metachromatic granules

storage of nutrient in cell

66

_____ Nucleoid

stores essential genetic information

67

_____ Cell envelope

rigid outer boundary

stores essential genetic information

68

_____ Pilus

short straight hair-like fibers

69

_____ Flagellum

otility

70

_____ Gram (-) cell wall

combined boundaries around cytoplasm