Fundamentals of Microbiology: Microbiology Chapter 3 Flashcards


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1

Prokaryotes exhibit these common features found in all living things. Identify the exception.

  1. They use DNA as the hereditary material.
  2. They use complex biochemical patterns of growth and energy conversions.
  3. They have a simple organization.
  4. The have complex responses to stimuli.

3. They have a simple organization.

2

One important ability that all cells must have to survive is maintaining a relatively stable internal environment. This is called

  1. homeostasis
  2. adaptation
  3. feedback
  4. regulation
  1. homeostasis

3

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ primarily with regard to the absence or presence of a

  1. plasma membrane.
  2. cell wall.
  3. spore.
  4. nucleus.

4. nucleus

4

Which scientists were the developers of the cell theory that all organisms are made of cells?

  1. Pasteur and Koch
  2. Linnaeus and Virchow
  3. Schleiden and Schwann
  4. Haeckel and Woess

3. Schleiden and Schwann

5

All the following are characteristics of prokaryotes except

  1. prokaryotes have organelles.
  2. prokaryotes have ribosomes.
  3. prokaryotes lack a nucleus.
  4. prokaryotes have genes.
  1. prokaryotes have organelles.

6

All the following characteristics apply to the prokaryotes except

  1. they lack a nucleus.
  2. they reproduce only by mitosis.
  3. they are composed of single cells.
  4. they include the bacteria.

2. they reproduce only by mitosis.

7

All of the following are part of the endomembrane system except

  1. endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. mitochondria.
  3. lysosomes.
  4. Golgi apparatus.

2. mitochondria

8

Which one of the following is not a function of the Golgi apparatus?

  1. Sorting of proteins
  2. Synthesis of proteins
  3. Processing of proteins
  4. Packaging of proteins

2. Synthesis of proteins

9

Prokaryotes go through the same kinds of energy reactions as eukaryotes, but without the double membrane organelles. Instead they use

  1. ribosomes.
  2. single membrane vacuoles.
  3. the cytosol and cell membranes.
  4. they use all of the above.

3. the cytosol and cell membranes.

10

Many prokaryotic cells exhibit motility. This is generally by

  1. membrane covered cilia
  2. uncovered cilia
  3. membrane covered flagella
  4. uncovered flagella

4. uncovered flagella

11

How do bacterial cells control water balance?

  1. Water moves in and out by osmosis.
  2. The cell wall prevents the cell from bursting from too much water.
  3. Water is limited by the cell membrane.
  4. A and B are correct, but not C.
  1. Water moves in and out by osmosis.

12

The binomial system of nomenclature for microorganisms uses the

  1. genus and specific epithet.
  2. order and species epithet.
  3. kingdom and genus names.
  4. family and species names.
  1. genus and specific epithet.

13

The correct way to write the name of a bacterium in the binomial system is

  1. Esch. col.
  2. Escherichia coli.
  3. Escherichia coli.
  4. Escherichia Coli.

3. Escherichia coli.

14

In the scientific name Bacillus anthracis, the term Bacillus is the

  1. species name.
  2. specific epithet.
  3. genus name.
  4. family name.

3. genus name.

15

In the bacterial name Vibrio cholerae, the word cholerae represents the

  1. specific epithet.
  2. genus.
  3. family.
  4. kingdom.
  1. specific epithet.

16

Carl von Linné or Linnaeus was important to biology because of his work with classification of organisms in

  1. Manual of Determinative Bacteriology.
  2. Systema Naturae and binomial nomenclature.
  3. Micrographia and taxonomic keys.
  4. All of the above are correct, he was a prolific writer.

2. Systema Naturae and binomial nomenclature.

17

Starting with Linnaeus, a hierarchical system was established for cataloging of living things. What did this mean at that time?

  1. Grouping of species by shared and common characteristics.
  2. Grouping of organisms by DNA analysis.
  3. Grouping of organisms by rRNA sequences.
  4. All of the above are correct.

1. Grouping of species by shared and common characteristics.

18

Which is the correct listing of a hierarchical system from large to small for bacteria?

  1. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Family, Order, Genus, Species.
  2. Domain, Phylum, Order, Class, Family, Genus, Species.
  3. Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Specific ephitat.
  4. Domain, Order, Division, Class, Family, Genus, Specific ephitat.

3. Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Specific ephitat.

19

Whittaker, Linnaeus and Haeckel all made substantial contributions to the

  1. development of microscopic instruments.
  2. science of taxonomy.
  3. discovery of viruses.
  4. history of protozoology.

2. Science of taxonomy.

20

In 1866, Ernst Haeckel, devised a three kingdom system. One kingdom was Plants, the second was Animals. What was the third kingdom and what did it include?

  1. Bacteria: included bacteria
  2. Monera: included bacteria, protozoans and algae.
  3. Protists: included bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi.
  4. Unicellular: included all the single celled organisms

3. Protists: included bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi.

21

Which one of following did not attempt a classification of living organisms?

  1. Robert H. Whittaker
  2. Carl Linnaeus
  3. Ernst Haeckel
  4. All the above tried to classify organisms.

4. All the above tried to classify organisms.

22

In the five-kingdom system of classification, which one of the following is not one of the kingdoms?

  1. Fungi.
  2. Virus
  3. Monera.
  4. Protista.

2. Virus

23

Which one of the following taxonomic groups is first associated with the work of Woese?

  1. Fungi
  2. Protista
  3. Archaea
  4. Animalia

3. Archaea

24

In Wittiker's five kingdom system, the fungi are

  1. pigmented organisms which move by means of flagella.
  2. a group that includes diatoms and dinoflagellates.
  3. typical prokaryotes.
  4. non-green, non-photosynthetic eukaryotes.

4. non-green, non-photosynthetic eukaryotes.

25

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology may be used to

  1. classify an unknown microorganism.
  2. look up the ingredients of a bacteriological growth medium.
  3. study the principles of nomenclature.
  4. learn how to test for the metabolic characteristics of bacteria.
  1. classify an unknown microorganism.

26

Carl Woese proposed a new classification system of three domains. What were these three domains?

  1. These were Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.
  2. These were Plantae, Animalia and Bacteria.
  3. These were Archaea, Animalia and Plantae.
  4. These were Archaea, Prokarya and Eukarya.
  1. These were Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.

27

The __________ are included in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.

  1. protozoa
  2. molds and yeasts
  3. bacteria
  4. viruses

3. bacteria

28

What tests are used to help identify bacteria today?

  1. Physical characteristics including shape, size and arrangement of cells.
  2. Biochemical tests showing metabolic properties like fermentation tubes.
  3. Serological tests with antisera for the production of antibodies.
  4. All of the above are currently used.

4. All of the above are currently used.

29

The length of an organism measuring 50 nanometers also may be expressed as

  1. 50,000 micrometers.
  2. 0.050 centimeters.
  3. 0.050 millimeters.
  4. 0.050 micrometers.

0.050 micrometers.

30

A nanometer (nm) is what part of a meter?

  1. 1/100
  2. 1/1000
  3. one millionth
  4. one billionth
  1. one billionth

31

The smallest unit of size in the list below is the

  1. meter.
  2. millimeter.
  3. micrometer.
  4. nanometer.

4. nanometer

32

Which one of the following sequences exhibits increasing size?

  1. Viruses to protozoa to bacteria
  2. Bacteria to viruses to fungi
  3. Fungi to protozoa to bacteria
  4. Viruses to bacteria to protozoa

4. Viruses to bacteria to protozoa

33

All the following groups are smaller than traditional bacteria except

  1. viruses.
  2. yeasts.
  3. mycoplasmas.
  4. rickettsiae.

2. yeasts.

34

The resolving power of the microscope reveals

  1. two closely spaced objects to be seen clearly.
  2. the maximum magnification possible with a particular objective.
  3. whether or not oil is needed to see a microorganism.
  4. the amount of clearance between slide and objective lens.

two closely spaced objects to be seen clearly.

35

Which one of the following groups is not resolved with the light microscope?

  1. Bacteria
  2. Fungi
  3. Molds
  4. Viruses

4. Viruses

36

An ocular lens with a magnification of 10X and an objective lens of 40X has a total magnification of

  1. 10X.
  2. 40X.
  3. 50X.
  4. 400X.

4. 400X.

37

At the conclusion of the negative stain technique, one can observe

  1. green-stained bacteria on a clear background.
  2. clear bacteria on a dark background.
  3. clear bacteria on a clear background.
  4. red bacteria on a clear green background.

2. clear bacteria on a dark background.

38

The Gram stain technique is valuable in distinguishing

  1. types of fungi.
  2. the size and structure of viruses.
  3. the nucleus of bacteria from other cellular organelles.
  4. different types of bacteria.

4. different types of bacteria.

39

Which of the following stains is used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with its thick waxy walls?

  1. Acid fast stain
  2. Gram stain
  3. Negative stain
  4. All of the above have to be used.

1. Acid fast stain

40

________ microscopy uses special filters and diaphragms to split the light beam and throw the rays slightly out of phase.

  1. Dark-field
  2. Fluorescence
  3. Phase-contrast
  4. Electron

3. Phase-contrast

41

A microscope image that has a dark background, with only the live object being illuminated, is an example of

  1. bright-field microscopy.
  2. scanning electron microscopy.
  3. dark-field microscopy.
  4. phase-contrast microscopy.

3. dark-field microscopy.

42

Dark-field microscopy is valuable for observing

  1. stained organisms.
  2. organisms too small to be seen with the light microscope.
  3. live microorganisms.
  4. internal details of microorganisms.

3. live microorganisms.

43

The use of UV light to excite a dye is used with

  1. bright-field microscopy.
  2. phase-contrast microscopy.
  3. electron microscopy.
  4. fluorescence microscopy.

4. fluorescence microscopy.

44

An advantage of the SEM over the TEM is

  1. a higher magnification may be achieved with the SEM.
  2. thin sections are not needed with the SEM.
  3. the SEM uses an electron beam with a shorter wavelength.
  4. the resolution is better with the SEM.

2. thin sections are not needed with the SEM.

45

requires that objects must be placed in a vacuum.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy
  1. Transmission electron microscopy

46

uses ultraviolet light as an energy source.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy

47

permits magnifications of over 200,000X.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

48

is used to observe dye-tagged antibodies.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy

49

has a special condenser to scatter light.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy

50

can be used to observe objects as small as 2.0 nm in diameter.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

51

is synonymous with the compound microscope.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy

52

involves electrons that are excited and move to a higher energy level

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy

53

is the best way to observe motile microorganisms.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy

54

uses ultra-thin sections of microorganisms.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

55

involves staining objects with heavy metals after sectioning.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

56

uses visible light as an energy source.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Bright-field microscopy

57

is used after Gram staining.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Bright-field microscopy

58

produces the illuminated organism on a dark background.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy

59

is used by diagnostic labs to identify many unknown microorganisms.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy

60

uses immersion oil to increase resolution with the 100X objective.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Bright-field microscopy

61

produces an effect similar to seeing the moon at night.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy

62

aids in the visualization of spiral bacteria.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy

63

is used to observe a slice of bacterium.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

64

was pioneered by Ernst Ruska.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy
  2. Fluorescence microscopy
  3. Dark-field microscopy
  4. Bright-field microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

65

. Non-photosynthetic, cell walls composed of chitin

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals

Eukarya

Fungi

66

Photosynthetic; prokaryotic

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals

Bacteria`

67

Includes Koalas in bamboo plants

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals

Archaea

Plants

Animals

68

Escherichia coli

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals

Bacteria

69

Have no membrane bound organelles

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals
  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria

70

Cyanobacteria

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals

Bacteria

71

Grass and trees

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals

Eukarya

Plants

72

Have ribosomes

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals
  1. Eukarya
  2. Protists
  3. Plants

73

prokaryotes living under extreme conditions

  1. Archaea
  2. Bacteria
  3. Eukarya
  4. Protists
  5. Fungi
  6. Plants
  7. Animals
  1. Archaea