Fundamentals of Microbiology: Microbiology Chapter 1 Flashcards


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1

Who was one of the early natural philosophers who coined the name “cella” for the empty cork spaces that became the word we use today, “cells”?

  1. Robert Hooke
  2. Zacharias Janssen
  3. Francesco Stalluti
  4. Giovanni Faber

Robert Hooke

2

Leeuwenhoek made lenses that allowed him to magnify objects more than 200X. However, he failed to promote scientific inquiry because

  1. he didn't share his drawings with other scientists.
  2. he didn't reveal how he ground the lenses and no one else was doing it that well.
  3. he limited his research to pond water
  4. it was only a hobby and he didn't live very long

he didn't reveal how he ground the lenses and no one else was doing it that well.

3

Leeuwenhoek was the first person to

  1. see viruses.
  2. use a microscope.
  3. describe bacteria.
  4. suggest animalcules caused disease.

describe bacteria.

4

Francesco Redi is famous for performing one of the first experiments over the debate regarding spontaneous generation. What was his experiment?

  1. He boiled some mutton gravy and sealed the tops with corks.
  2. He covered some jars of meat with gauze and left others open. The covered jars did not develop maggots, the uncovered ones did.
  3. He showed that mice will appear with damp rags and rice.
  4. He boiled broth for longer periods of time and sealed the tops with melted glass.

He covered some jars of meat with gauze and left others open. The covered jars did not develop maggots, the uncovered ones did.

5

________ did not attempt to prove or refute the idea of spontaneous generation.

  1. Francesco Redi
  2. Robert Koch
  3. Lazzaro Spallanzani
  4. Louis Pasteur

Robert Koch

6

Which one of the following would be consistent with the idea of spontaneous generation?

  1. Microorganisms may be cultivated on solid laboratory media.
  2. Insects are important in the transmission of disease.
  3. Sick people give rise to microorganisms in their body.
  4. Disinfection is essential to prevent the spread of microorganisms.

Sick people give rise to microorganisms in their body.

7

Spallanzani’s experiments showed that

  1. viruses were transmitted by water.
  2. spontaneous generation occurs.
  3. miasma was the cause of disease.
  4. experiments can be modified to test a hypothesis.

experiments can be modified to test a hypothesis.

8

Which pair of scientists were antagonists during the same period of history?

  1. Pasteur and Ehrlich
  2. Koch and Leeuwenhoek
  3. Spallanzani and Needham
  4. Pasteur and Snow

Spallanzani and Needham

9

Semmelweis showed that the transmission of disease could be interrupted by

  1. killing disease-carrying mosquitoes.
  2. disinfecting water supplies.
  3. pasteurizing milk.
  4. washing hands in chlorine water.

washing hands in chlorine water.

10

In 1854, John Snow determined that contaminated water transmits

  1. smallpox.
  2. cholera.
  3. influenza.
  4. anthrax.

cholera.

11

John Snow traced the source of an 1854 outbreak of cholera to

  1. consumption of contaminated beef.
  2. an increase in infected mosquitoes.
  3. yeast cells on contaminated apples.
  4. a contaminated municipal water supply.

a contaminated municipal water supply.

12
  1. Who was Edward Jenner?
  2. He was a surgeon who observed cowpox could provide immunity for smallpox.
  3. He was a physician who discovered washing your hands can reduce disease transmission.
  4. He was the first to see a pathogen that causes disease.
  5. All of the above are correct.

He was a surgeon who observed cowpox could provide immunity for smallpox.

13

What was Christian Ehrenberg responsible for naming in the 1830's?

  1. He gave the name "vaccines."
  2. He gave the name "eukaryotes".
  3. He gave the name "bacteria".
  4. He gave the name "cells".

He gave the name "bacteria".

14

The classical Golden Age of microbiology came to an end partly due to the

  1. fact that all infectious diseases were known.
  2. death of Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
  3. the advent of World War I.
  4. end of the Renaissance.

the advent of World War I.

15

Pasteur’s study of fermentation was critical to the development of microbiology because

  1. fermentation chemistry occurs in the living body.
  2. it showed that microorganisms bring about chemical changes.
  3. it demonstrated that yeasts are involved in disease.
  4. the body undergoes rapid fermentation after death.

it showed that microorganisms bring about chemical changes.

16

Pasteur’s studies proved that grape juice was a fermentation product of

  1. bacteria.
  2. yeasts.
  3. algae.
  4. a natural chemical process not involving living organisms.

yeasts.

17

Pasteur first suggested that bacteria could cause disease in humans by showing that bacteria could

  1. contaminate canned foods.
  2. cause plant diseases.
  3. sour wine.
  4. infect animals.

sour wine.

18

Pasteur’s observations that protozoa were related to the silkworm disease strengthened his belief in the

  1. germ theory of disease.
  2. doctrine of spontaneous generation.
  3. eukaryotic nature of protozoa.
  4. None of the above is correct.

germ theory of disease.

19

Lister used __________ to clean wounds and surgical instruments.

  1. antibiotics
  2. antitoxins
  3. chlorine water
  4. carbolic acid

carbolic acid

20

Koch’s postulates provided guidelines for

  1. relating certain microorganisms with certain diseases.
  2. sterilizing laboratory supplies.
  3. preparing pure cultures.
  4. testing the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics.

relating certain microorganisms with certain diseases.

21

Koch was responsible for thorough observations on the organisms of

  1. measles and diphtheria.
  2. diphtheria and plague.
  3. plague and tetanus.
  4. tuberculosis and anthrax.

tuberculosis and anthrax.

22

Pasteur was able to prepare a vaccine against rabies even though

  1. rabies was not a deadly disease.
  2. he was unable to see the organism.
  3. he had no experience with microorganisms.
  4. None of the above is correct.

he was unable to see the organism.

23

Which coworker of Koch's demonstrated that diphtheria could be treated with an antitoxin?

  1. Roux.
  2. Yersin.
  3. von Behring.
  4. Pasteur.

von Behring.

24

The accomplishments of Koch include all the following except

  1. development of the rabies vaccine.
  2. isolation of the tubercle bacillus.
  3. development of culture techniques.
  4. proof of the germ theory of disease

development of the rabies vaccine.

25

Which scientists showed diphtheria was caused by a bacterial toxin?

  1. Roux and Yersin
  2. Pasteur and Koch
  3. Luria and Delbrück
  4. von Behring and Roux

Roux and Yersin

26

. Studies during the classical Golden Age included all the following diseases except

  1. malaria.
  2. tuberculosis.
  3. plague.
  4. measles

measles

27

Which scientists worked independently to show the infectious nature of the tobacco mosaic virus?

  1. Roux and Yersin
  2. Koch and Behring.
  3. Kitasato and Metchnikoff.
  4. Ivanowsky and Beijerinck.

Ivanowsky and Beijerinck.

28

Two of the earliest environmental microbiologists were

  1. Winogradsky and Beijerinck.
  2. Ivanowsky and Beijerinck.
  3. Luria and Delbrück.
  4. Hershey and Chase.

Winogradsky and Beijerinck.

29

All of the following are examples of new emerging infectious diseases except

  1. SARS.
  2. chickenpox.
  3. Lyme disease.
  4. AIDS.

chickenpox.

30

The bacillus, coccus, and spirillum shapes are typical of the

  1. fungi.
  2. bacteria.
  3. viruses.
  4. protista.

bacteria.

31

Movement by flagella, cilia, or a crawling movement is typical of the

  1. fungi.
  2. protozoa.
  3. bacteria.
  4. viruses.

protozoa.

32

In 1943 Luria and Dulbrück used ______________ to show that mutations can arise spontaneously.

  1. Vibrio cholera
  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis
  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  4. Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli

33

Beadle and Tatum used the fungus Neurospora to show that

  1. one gene codes for one enzyme.
  2. mutations can be induced by the environment.
  3. DNA is the genetic component of cells.
  4. all cells can have parasites.

one gene codes for one enzyme.

34

Hershey and Chase proved that

  1. bacteria reproduce.
  2. viruses cause human disease.
  3. bacteria lack a membrane envelope.
  4. DNA is the genetic material of cells.

DNA is the genetic material of cells.

35

. Which of the following types of cells are Prokaryotes?

  1. fungi
  2. protests
  3. bacteria
  4. viruses

bacteria

36

The “magic bullet” of Paul Ehrlich was

  1. a vaccine against plague.
  2. an antitoxin that cured diphtheria.
  3. a chemical used to treat syphilis.
  4. a method for pasteurizing milk and dairy products

a chemical used to treat syphilis.

37

Penicillin was discovered by

  1. Waksman.
  2. Domagk.
  3. Fleming.
  4. Ehrlich.

Fleming.

38

The antibiotic penicillin is produced by

  1. a bacterium.
  2. a protozoan.
  3. a fungus.
  4. an alga.

a fungus.

39

What makes this the third golden age of microbiology?

  1. the use of biotechnology to manipulate microbes for our benefit
  2. the discovery of new antiviral medications
  3. the greater ability to discover new antimicrobials
  4. the conquering of infectious diseases

The use of biotechnology to manipulate microbes for our benefit

40

There are three golden ages of microbiology listed in your text. Which of the following statements regarding them is true?

  1. The first golden age was a discovery of which microbes cause which diseases.
  2. The second golden age was finding antimicrobials to control those infections.
  3. The third golden age was finding organisms that weren't known before and finding that more than one disease can be caused by one organism.
  4. All of the above are correct.
  1. All of the above are correct.

41

The rise in antibiotic resistance is due, in part, to

  1. bacterial mutations.
  2. inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics by doctors.
  3. demand by patients when antibiotics are not useful in treatment.
  4. all of the above are correct.

all of the above are correct.

42

Which of the following are examples of bioterrorism?

  1. a natural emerging infectious disease outbreak
  2. the intentional use of biological agents to create fear or inflict disease or death on a large population
  3. a situation where there is a lack of control measures to contain an infectious disease
  4. a disease that has existed in the past that is now showing a resurgence

the intentional use of biological agents to create fear or inflict disease or death on a large population

43

. Which one of the following statements is true concerning biofilms?

  1. They represent complex communities of microorganisms.
  2. They can cause middle ear infections.
  3. They are easily treated.
  4. A and B are correct.

A and B are correct.

44

Which one of the following is not a role for bioremediation?

  1. Helping clean up oil spills.
  2. Curing infectious diseases.
  3. Providing solutions to toxic waste removal.
  4. Degrading dangerous environmental wastes.

Curing infectious diseases.

45

consist of DNA or RNA.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

1. Viruses

46

are prokaryotes

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

4. Bacteria

47

contain the agents responsible for malaria and sleeping sickness.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

3. Protista

48

have a protein coat that surrounds the genetic information.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

1. Viruses

49

include molds and yeasts.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

2. Fungi

50

contain the protozoa and algae.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

3. Protista

51

are the primary eukaryotic decomposers.Viruses

  1. Fungi
  2. Protista
  3. Bacteria

2. Fungi

52

are the most metabolically diverse group.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

4. Bacteria

53

include the agents responsible for flu and smallpox.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria
  1. Viruses

54

impart distinctive flavors in foods such as Roquefort cheese.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

2. Fungi

55

include the agents causing tuberculosis and cholera.

  1. Viruses
  2. Fungi
  3. Protista
  4. Bacteria

4. Bacteria