Bio 202 clickers exam 3 Flashcards


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1

The enterohepatic circulation reabsorbs bile salts in the distal portion of the small intestine (ileum). All of the following about enterohepatic circulation are true except one.

A. Reabsorbing bile salt in the ileum gives more time to emulsify

B. The reabsorption of bile salts allows them to be reused within new bile

C. all components of bile are recycled by this circulation

2

Which of the following is the best illustration of the difference between metabolism and digestion?

Metabolism comprises all of the chemical reactions performed within the body while digestion is only the breakdown of food within the GI tract

3

Which of the following is least involved in the mechanical breakdown of food, digestion or absorption of nutrients?

esophagus

4

Which of the organs listed below is involved in all of the following processes: secretion, mechanical breakdown of food, digestion and absorption?

Stomach

5

Which of the following is the best explanation of the benefit in the digestive system having the largest collection of MALT at the distal end of the small intestine?

The huge numbers of bacteria living in the large intestine must be prevented from entering the lumen of the small intestine and being absorbed with food's nutrients into the bloodstream

6

Bile salts bind at their hydrophobic regions to large fat globules within the chyme that enters the duodenum. Bile salts break up the fat globule into smaller fat droplets. The role of bile salts is best described as ___

lipid emulsification

7

A doctor consulting a patient that recently has had their gallbladder removed would likely advise ___

eating foods that are low in fat

8

All but one of the following is a function of low pH found in the stomach. Select the one that does not reflect a role of stomach acid

the stomach's acid catabolically breaks down food stuffs in preparation for absorption

9

Fat absorption through the plasma membrane of epithelial cells ____

occurs by simple diffusion because lipids are able to penetrate the hydrophobic fatty acid tails within the plasma membrane

10

Select the best explanation for why protease enzymes are secreted in inactive forms

The cells producing inactive enzymes are themselves protected from the enzymes until they are safely within the lumen of the GI tract

11

Select the description that illustrates a difference between a sphincter and circular muscle

a sphincter is a thickening of circular muscle that can prevent movement of digesting materials while circular muscle is involved in propulsion digesting material

12

In the enteric nervous system, a long reflexive pathway has an advantage over a short reflexive pathway in the fact that ___

long reflexive pathways can be stimulated by the outside of the GI tract

13

Know: Alkaline tide

when parietal cells are appropriately stimulated, H+ is actively pumped into stomach lumen by H + -K+ ATPases (proton pumps).

As acid is pumped into the stomach, base HCO3 - is exported into the blood. this flow of base is called the alkaline tide

14

The sight of food can trigger a series of events that results in the release of gastric juice. All but one of the following is true in regards to #12.

The motor nerves of this pathways are part of the the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

15

All of the following are true of swallowing (deglutition) except one.

The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea.

16

Some antacid drugs block histamine receptors, resulting in reduction of the production and excretion of stomach acid. these drugs have the biggest effect on which of the following?

Parietal

17

Generally the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin which are released by duodenal enteroendocrine cells will ___

Slows the activities of the stomach

18

Know: Hepatopancreatic sphincter

...

19

Small intestine is ___

a major organ of digestion and absorption

20

Generally the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin which are released by duodenal enteroendocrine cells will ___

increase the release of digestive enzymes and bile

21

Know: Peyer's patches

...

22

Select the one response below that would not result from a drug that blocks histamine receptors in the cells lining the stomach

A. it would lower the activity of parietal cells

B. would reduce symptoms of heartburn

C. it would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin

D. would raise pH

23

Proteins entering the stomach act as a buffer raising pH. Rising pH stimulates the activity of G-cells in the lining of the stomach. all of the following but one will occur.

A. More stomach acid will be produced and secreted

B. Digestive enzymes will be released

C. Protein digestion will be enhanced

D. A positive feedback response will be initiated and G-cell activity will continue to go up

24

Know : Teneae coli, haustra, epiploicc appendages

...

25

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control the digestive activity are located ___

in the walls of the tract organ

26

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing in the liver

27

the chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ___

digestion

28

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ___

chemical digestion

29

The sheets or peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ___

mesenteries

30

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the wall of every organ are made up of the same 4 basic layers. arrange them in order from the lumen

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

31

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

A. thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus

B. tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

C. replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells

D. secretion fo pepsinogen

32

What part of the tooth bears the force and resists the friction of chewing?

enamel

33

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ____

Lamina propria

34

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

A. Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion

B. Bile functions to emulsify fats

C. Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown to worn-out RBCs

D. Bile contains enzymes for digestion

35

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ____

Glucose

36

Which of the choices below is NOT a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?

A. ATP production

B. Lipogenesis

C. Amino Acid synthesis

D. Direct conversion to a nucleic acid

E. Glycogenesis

37

Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?

Protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation

38

Cholesterol, though is NOT an energy molecule, has importance because it ___

is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

39

Which of the following best describes a complete protein?

Must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth

40

The term metabolism is best defined as ___

the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body

41

Anabolism includes reactions in which _____

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

42

The primary function of cellular respiration is to ___

break down food molecules and generate ATP

43

lipogenesis

synthesis of lipid from glucose or amino acids

44

Lipolysis

splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids

45

beta oxidation

conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups

46

ketogenesis

formation of ketone bodies

47

The term basal metabolic rate reflects the _____

energy need

48

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly ___

urea

49

Gluconeogenesis

formation of glucose from proteins or fats

50

Glycogenolysis

break down of glycogen to release glucose

51

Glycogenesis

storage of glucose in the form of glycogen

52

Glycolysis

break down of glucose to pyruvate

53

Lipogenesis occurs when ___

cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

54

It is important to be ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ___

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help he body utilize essential nutrients

55

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ___

period when the metabolic rate is lowest

56

Which of the following is normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?

release of epinephrine

57

Conduction

heat transfer into the chair you are sitting on

58

Convection

Heat exchange when you are under a ceiling fan

59

Radiation

heat loss in the form of infrared waves

60

Evaporation

heat loss during sweating

61

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration/

oxidative phosphorylation

62

What is the outcome of ketosis?

metabolic acidosis

63

Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria?

a great deal of active transport takes places in the PCT

64

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?

macula densa

65

What is the most direct functin of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidney

66

Select the correct statement about urinary system development

kidneys develop from the urogenital ridges

67

In the ascending limb of the nephron loop the ___

thick segment moves ions ions out into the interstitial space for reabsorption

68

Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise pH?

by secreting sodium ions

69

Excretion of dilute urine requires ___

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

70

Which of the choices is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?

electrolyte levels

71

If one says the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

normally the reabsorption

72

GFR ***********

...

73

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ___

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

74

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?

angiotensin II and aldosterone

75

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?

ADH

76

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease

77

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

kidney function decrease due to kidney atrophy

78

Which of the choices below is function of the nephron loop?

form a large volume of very dilute urine or small volume of very concentrated urine

79

C = UV/P

...

80

Which of the following is the correct sequence of the sequence of kidney development in the embryo?

pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros

81

Which of the followin is not true regarding tubular reabsorption?

it is a purely passive transport process

82

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ___

secondary active transport

83

Which of the following hormone is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentration in extracellular fluid?

aldosterone

84

Respiratory acidosis can occur when ___

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

85

Which of the following not a part of the juxtaglomerular complex?

podocyte cells