Human Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?

insulin

cortisol

epinephrine

cortisol

2

What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?

phosphorylation of intracellular proteins

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

increasing protein kinases

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

3

After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

activates a protein kinase

directly alters protein synthesis at the ribosome

phosphorylates a protein

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

4

Which hormone’s receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?

cortisol

insulin

thyroid hormone

thyroid hormone

5

What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor?

Receptors can’t enter the nucleus until the hormone is bound to it.

transcription factors

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

6

What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?

lipid-soluble hormones, such as thyroid hormones and cortisol

water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine

water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine

7

Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?

protein kinase C

phospholipase C

phosphodiesterase

adenylate cyclase

phosphodiesterase

8

Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?

G proteins

tyrosine kinase receptors

intracellular receptors

tyrosine kinase receptors

9

Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?

activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP

activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of phospholipase C, activation of DAG and IP3

activation of a G protein, tyrosine kinase receptor, phosphorylation of intracellular proteins

activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP

10

Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?

IP3

cAMP

tyrosine kinase

DAG

IP3

11

Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?

β receptors

α2 receptors

α1 receptors

β receptors

12

What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?

growth hormone (GH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

13

What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?

control secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

control secretion of oxytocin

control secretion of thyroid hormones

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

14

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?

GH (growth hormone)

thyroid hormones

oxytocin

prolactin (PRL)

GH (growth hormone)

15

Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine (“letdown”) reflex?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

cortisol

oxytocin

oxytocin

16

Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?

hypothalamus

kidney

posterior pituitary

anterior pituitary

hypothalamus

17

What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

a circadian rhythm of release

negative feedback

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

negative feedback

18

Which of the following hormones is a part of the rapid response (rather than the prolonged response) to stress?

cortisol

ADH (vasopressin)

aldosterone

epinephrine

epinephrine

19

In response to stress, which of the following changes would happen?

decreased or difficulty breathing

decreased insulin secretion

decreased cardiac output

decreased sweating

decreased insulin secretion

20

Which of the following are symptom(s) of pheochromocytoma?

cool, dry skin

heart palpitations

low blood glucose

slow heart rate

heart palpitations

21

Choose which condition has all of the following symptoms: hypertension, hyperglycemia, and a “moon face.”

Cushing’s disease

pheochromocytoma

Addison’s disease

Cushing’s disease

22

What hormone also aids the stress response by promoting water retention and acting as a vasoconstrictor?

angiotensin II

cortisol

ADH (vasopressin)

aldosterone

ADH (vasopressin)

23

Complete the sentences..

  • 1. In type 2 diabetes, target cells do not respond normally to insulin.
  • 2. In type 1 diabetes, no insulin is produced.
  • 3. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucose levels remain higher than normal.

...

24

When blood glucose levels are high...

The pancreas releases insulin.

The pancreas releases glucagon.

The liver releases glucagon.

The liver releases insulin.

The pancreas releases insulin.

25

A liver cell responds to insulin by...

Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.

Releasing glucagon.

Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.

Releasing insulin.

Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen

26

What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

Intestinal cells.

Liver cells.

Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.

Muscle cells.

Liver cells.

27

Body cells that respond to insulin include...

Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.

Liver cells and muscle cells only.

Muscle cells only.

Liver cells only.

Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.

28

When blood glucose levels are low...

The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.

The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.

The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.

The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.

29

The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called?

positive feedback.

negative feedback.

homeostasis.

None of the above.

homeostasis.

30

The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the anterior pituitary, which has traditionally been called the "master endocrine gland."

True

31

Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis

a change in membrane potential

an increase in enzymatic activity

direct control of the nervous system

direct control of the nervous system

32

Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.

the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit

peptide hormones are converted by cell membranes enzymes into second messengers

hormones alter cellular operations through direct stimulation of a gene

G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers

G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers

33

Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?

epinephrine

cortisone

estrogen

aldosterone

epinephrine

34

What is the target organ of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)?

A. Hypothalamus

B. Anterior pituitary

C. Thyroid gland

D. Target cells

B. Anterior pituitary

35

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

hepatic portal system

feedback loop

general circulatory system

hypophyseal portal system

hypophyseal portal system

36

A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.

The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.

A hormone made in the adenohypophysis cannot influence fertility.

FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males.

FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.

FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.

37

What cells release parathyroid hormone?

oxyphil cells

follicular cells

parathyroid cells

parafollicular cells

parathyroid cells

38

What does dark red blood indicate?

oxygen-rich blood

saltiness of blood

oxygen-poor blood

pH of blood

oxygen-poor blood

39

Which part of the hemoglobin molecule binds carbon dioxide for transport?

heme group

amino acids of globin

spectrin

iron

amino acids of globin

40

What is a young, anucleate erythrocyte called?

polychromatic erythroblas

themopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)

proerythroblast

reticulocyte

reticulocyte

41

What part of the hemoglobin molecule is recycled to form bile?

ferritin

iron

globin

a portion of the heme group

a portion of the heme group

42

What erythrocyte production disorder results from an autoimmune disease associated with vitamin B12 absorption?

aplastic anemia

hemorrhagic anemia

pernicious anemia

renal anemia

pernicious anemia

43

What role do the kidneys play in erythropoiesis?

The kidneys make new red blood cells.

The kidneys detect low levels of oxygen in the blood.

The kidneys store iron for the production of red blood cells.

The kidneys absorb iron from food.

The kidneys detect low levels of oxygen in the blood.

44

Which cell of the myeloid stem cell pathway has accumulated granules?

myelocytes

promyelocytes

monocytes

myeloblasts

myelocytes

45

From which cell do the granulocytes descend?

monoblast

lymphoid stem cell

myeloblast

promonocyte

myeloblast

46

Which formed element can be described as cytoplasmic fragments?

monocytes

platelets

lymphocytes

erythrocytes

platelets

47

Which of the following statements does not describe blood?

Blood pH is normally between 7.35 and 7.45.

Blood is denser and more viscous than water.

Blood varies from bright red to a dark red color.

Blood carries body cells to injured areas for repair.

Blood carries body cells to injured areas for repair

48

The plasma protein that is the major contributor to osmotic pressure is ________.

fibrinogen

alpha globulin

gamma globulin

albumin

albumin

49

Which of the following is NOT a formed element of the blood?

platelets

antibodies

leukocytes

erythrocytes

antibodies

50

Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin.

It is found in the plasma portion of blood.

It can bind a maximum of three oxygen molecules.

When hemoglobin is not bound to oxygen, it appears blue.

It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.

It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.

51

An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called __________.

thalassemia

leukocytosis

polycythemia

sickle-cell anemia

polycythemia

52

Platelet formation is regulated by __________.

erythropoietin

plasmin

thrombopoietin

interleukin-2

thrombopoietin

53

Erythrocytes lack a nucleus.

True

54

All leukocytes are also lymphocytes.

False

55

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.

eosinophils

monocytes

neutrophils

basophils

monocytes

56

The heart is actually (one, two, or three) pumps?

one pump

two pumps

three pumps

two pumps

57

Which chamber receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae?

right ventricle

left atrium

right atrium

left ventricle

right atrium

58

Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?

left atrium

right atrium

right ventricle

left ventricle

left atrium

59

Which heart chamber pumps unoxygenated blood out the pulmonary trunk?

right ventricle

left ventricle

right atrium

left atrium

right ventricle

60

Which chamber pumps oxygenated blood out the aorta to the systemic circuit?

left ventricle

left atrium

right atrium

right ventricle

left ventricle

61

What separates the parietal and visceral pericardium?

myocardium

epicardium

pericardial cavity

fibrous pericardium

pericardial cavity