From Colony to Superpower: 1776-1800 Flashcards

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created 14 years ago by mmc223
U S Diplomatic History
updated 14 years ago by mmc223
Grade levels:
College: Fourth year
history, united states, foreign relations, 19th century, revolutionary period (1775-1800), modern
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The 13 new states found it difficult to present unified foreign policy because...

The Articles of Confederation limited the national government's power to make treaties


The 13 new states found it difficult to present unified foreign policy because (2)...

They tended to compete with each other


How did the Constitution differ from the Articles of Confederation?

1. Gave Federal gov't power to make treaties
2. Gave Federal gov't power to levy taxes
3. Bill of Rights spelled out states' rights


Who created the State Dept?

George Washington


Describe overall foreign policy of United States

We believed that free trade would benefit all manking, not just the ruling class


How did agreements with foreign nations evolve over time?

In 1815, we started to concentrate on reciprocity agreements rather than most-favored-nation


How does reciprocity differ from most-favored-nation?

Reciprocity agreements are more detailed, involve more U.S. control of the situation, our intent to trade with other countries on individual bases regardless of their competitors, and make clear our intent to retaliate if needed.


An early effort to attract foreign aid for the Revolutionary War

Model Treaty of 1776


Dual purpose of the Declaration of Independence

rallying cry for the fight
attract foreign aid, especially from France


How did France respond to our request for aid?

Covert at first, then overt aid starting in 1778, all totaled about $10 million.


How did other countries respond to our need for military aid?

Austria, Denmark, Holland, Naples, Poland, Prussia, Russia, Spain and Sweden contributed about $2 million, with Spain the largest contributor.


What was France's main motivation for military aid?

Strike a slanted blow at Gr. Britain


Some Europeans who fought with the US for personal reasons

Marquis de Lafayette and Baron de Kalb (France)
Count Polaski and Thaddeus Kosciusko (Poland)
Baron von Steuben (Germany)


Who brought badly needed training and discipline to our troops?

Baron von Steuben


What was a crucial task for the young United States?

convince other countries that we were a good business risk and would survive longer than 5 years


How did the US respond to conflict between Gr. Britain and France in the 1790s?

We reserved the neutral right to trade with both parties.


How did the US define contraband?

Arms and ammunition


How did the British define contraband?

Anything that might aid the enemy, including food.


What British act almost drew us into war in the 179s?

Royal Navy seized 250 US ships in the British West Indies


What was the purpose of Chief Justice John Jay's mission to London?

Negotiate a settlement for the ships that were seized and secure access to the British West Indies


Why was the US so interested in the British West Indies?

BWI was a stop in the triangular trade


What was the triangular trade at this time?

Trade in sugar, molasses, rum, manufactured goods from Europe, and slaves


What was the basic result of the Jay mission?

6 months of negotiation produced Jay's Treaty. It was not well received in the US


7 British concessions in the Jay Treaty

1. most favored nation status in British ports
2. access to British India ports
3. access to BWI with tonnage limits
4. compensation for ships seized
5. British to vacate northwestern forts
6. arbitration for border dispute in NE
7. arbitration for US citizen debts to Gr Britain


3 things that the Jay Treaty did not address

1. compensation for slaves carried off in war
2. British agitation of Indians
3. neutrality


3 things that the US promised in the Jay Treaty

1. limit our ability to discriminate among trading partners
2. abide by British definition of contraband
3. admit British privateers and prizes to US ports


Why was the Jay treaty opposed in the US?

We felt that Jay promised too much and recieved too little of consequence.


How did the French respond to Jay's treaty?

1. Tried to interfere with passage of the Treaty
2. Tried to sway Presidential election in favor of Jefferson
3. Seized 300 US ships in the French West Indies


Who did Pres. Adams send to Paris to seek a settlement for ships seized?

John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry and Charles Pickney


Scandal involved in mission to Paris

"XYZ Affair"


What was the XYZ Affair?

French agents indentified as X Y and Z demanded bribes starting at $250,000 and a loan of $12 million for access to Fr. Foreign Minister Talleyrand


What was the immediate result of X Y and Z?

Our ministers returned home without an agreement. The story was hushed up at first because of the insult to our country. It provoked calls for war when it became public.


How did Talleyrand first respond to US war talk?

He backed down on financial demands but refused to stop impressment.


US military response to XYZ affair

1. US gathered an army of 50,000
2. Embargo against France
3. 2 year undeclared war in Fr. West Indies


French response to the undeclared war

France paid $20 million as apology and made an effort to stop impressment


What peace agreement officially ended hostilities with France?

Convention of 1800


Why did France finally sign a peace agreement?

They knew they did not need to drive the US into the arms of the British.