Activity 3: Gross Anatomy of the Human Reproductive System and Identifying Female Reproductive Organs

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1

What are the primary reproductive organs of the female reproductive system?

Ovaries

2

Like the testes, the ovaries produce what 2 products? (Hint: Think a specific cell type and a specific hormone type)

1. Gametes

2. Sex hormones

3

What are 4 functions of the accessory structures of the female reproductive system in regards to the reproductive cells and/or the fetus?

1. Transport

2. House

3. Nurture

4. Serve the needs of the fetus

4

The external genitalia of the female reproductive system is also called what?

The vulva

5

The external genitalia consist of what 8 structures?

1. Mons pubis

2. Labia majora

3. Labia minora

4. Clitoris

5. External urethral orifice

6. Vaginal orifice

7. Hymen

8. Greater vestibular glands

6

The diamond-shaped region between the anterior end of the labial folds, the ischial tuberosities laterally, and the anus posteriorly is called what?

The perineum

7

The mons pubis is made up of what type of tissue?

Adipose tissue or fat

8

What is the function of the mons pubis?

To cushions the pubic symphysis

9

The mons pubis is covered with what after puberty?

Coarse hair

10

The labia majora extend from what external genitalia part?

Extends from the mons pubis

11

The labia majora contain what 3 structures? (Hint: 2 types of glands and 1 type of tissue)

1. Sebaceous glands

2. Apocrine glands

3. Adipose tissue

12

The labia majora are homolgous to what structure in males?

The scrotum

13

The labia minora are located medial to what external genitalia part?

The labia majora

14

Of hair, adipose tissue, and sebaceous glands, the labia minora lack what 2 and contain which one?

Lack hair and adipose tissue but do contain many sebaceous glands

15

The vestibule is a region that is located between what?

The two labia minora

16

From anterior to posterior, the vestibule contains what 3 structures of the external genitalia?

1. Clitoris

2. External urethral orifice

3. Vaginal orifice

17

The clitoris is made up of what tissue type?

Erectile tissue

18

The clitoris is located where?

Located where the labia minora meet anteriorly

19

The clitoris is homologous to what male structure?

The penis

20

The prepuce of the clitoris are skin folds formed by union of what external genitalia structure?

The labia minora

21

What is the function of the prepuce of the clitoris?

Hood the clitoris

22

What is the function of the external urethral orifice?

Serves as the outlet for the urinary system

23

Does the external urethral orifice have any reproductive function?

No reproductive function

24

The hymen is a thin fold of what type of membrane?

Mucus membrane

25

The hymen may cover what opening?

The vaginal opening

26

The greater vestibular glands secrete what substance?

Mucus

27

What is the function of the greater vestibular glands?

To lubricate the distal end of the vagina with mucus during coitus aka sexual intercourse

28

The greater vestibular glands are homologous to what glands in males?

The bulbo-urethral glands

29

What are 5 internal structures of the female reproductive system?

1. Vagina

2. Uterus

3. Uterine tubes

4. Ovaries

5. Suspending and supporting ligaments

30

The vagina extends for how long?

About 10 cm or 4 inches

31

The vagina extends from what external structure to what internal structure and in what direction?

The vestibule to the uterus superiorly

32

The vagina serves as what type of organ and what type of canal?

1. Copulatory organ

2. Birth canal

33

The vagina also permits what type of flow

The menstrual flow

34

The uterus is what shape (i.e. like what fruit) and is situated between what 2 body features?

It's pear-shaped and located between the urinary bladder and the rectum

35

The uterus is what type of organ?

A muscular organ

36

What is the narrow end of the uterus?

The cervix

37

How is the cervix directed?

Inferiorly

38

The major portion of the uterus is referred to as what?

The body

39

The superior rounded region above the entrance of the uterine tubes is called what?

The fundus

40

What is implanted in the uterus?

A fertilized egg

41

What is the function of the uterus during a pregnancy?

To house the embryo or fetus during its development

42

In some cases, what are 2 other places in which the fertilized egg may implant?

1. Uterine tube

2. Abdominal viscera

43

When a fertilized egg implants in the uterine tube or the abdominal viscera, what type of pregnancy happens?

An ectopic pregnancy

44

Are ectopic implantations successful?

No

45

Why may ectopic implantations in the uterine tubes be dangerous?

The uterine tubes cannot accommodate the increasing size of the fetus

46

What is the endometrium in regard to the uterus? (Hint: what is it made out of?)

The thick mucosal lining of the uterus

47

The endometrium has what 2 layers from superficial to deep?

1. Stratum functionalis

2. Stratum basalis

48

The stratum functionalis sloughs off in approximately how many days?

About 28 days

49

The stratum functionalis sloughs off in response to what? (Hint: Think cyclic changes and hormones)

In response to cyclic changes in the levels of ovarian hormones in the female's blood

50

The sloughing-off process is accommodated by what event? (Hint: Think blood)

Bleeding

51

The sloughing-off process is referred to as what?

Menstruation

52

What is the function of the stratum basalis?

To form a new stratum functionalis after menstruation ends

53

The fallopian tubes are also called what?

Uterine tubes

54

The fallopian tubes are about how long?

10 cm or 4 inches long

55

The fallopian tubes extend from what internal reproductive structure to what cavity to what region of what internal organ?

Extends from the ovaries in the peritoneal cavity to the superolateral region of the uterus

56

The distal ends of the tubes have finger-like projections called what?

Fimbriae

57

Unlike the male system, what is different between the female gonad (ovaries) and the initial part of the female duct system-the uterine tube?

There is no actual contact

58

Because of the open passageway between the female reproductive organs and the peritoneal cavity, what is the consequence in regard to reproductive system infections?

Reproductive system infections can cause widespread inflammations of the pelvic viscera

59

Inflammation of the pelvic viscera is called what?

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

60

Give an example of a reproductive system infection?

Gonorrhea

61

1. STIs stand for what?

2. STDs stand for what?

1. Sexually transmitted infections

2. Sexually transmitted diseases

62

All of the internal female organs are retroperitoneal except for which set?

The ovaries

63

How are the ovaries supported and suspended? (Hint: Think ligament)

Supported and suspended by ligamentous folds of the peritoneum

64

What are the 9 supporting structures of the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries?

1. Broad ligament

2. Mesometrium

3. Round ligaments

4. Uterosacral ligaments

5. Cardinal (lateral cervical) ligaments

6. Mesosalpinx

7. Mesovarium

8. Suspensory ligaments

9. Ovarian ligaments

65

What is the function of the broad ligament in regards to the uterus and uterine tubes?

Anchors them to the lateral body walls

66

The mesometrium supports what internal reproductive structure and in what direction?

Supports the uterus laterally

67

The round ligaments anchor what internal reproductive structure to which wall?

Anchor the uterus to the anterior pelvic wall

68

The uterosacral ligaments secure what internal reproductive structure to what bone and in what direction?

Secure the uterus to the sacrum posteriorly

69

The cardinal ligaments connect what 2 internal reproductive structures to what wall and how directionally?

Connect the cervix and vagina to the pelvic wall laterally

70

What is the general function of the mesosalpinx? (Hint: Involves a certain tube)

Anchors the fallopian tube

71

What is the general function of the mesovarium?

Supports the ovaries

72

The suspensory ligaments attach what set of internal reproductive structures to what wall?

Attach the ovaries to the lateral pelvic wall

73

The ovarian ligaments anchor what set of internal reproductive structures to what other internal reproductive structure, and how so directionally?

Anchor the ovaries to the uterus medially

74

Inside the ovaries, the female gametes or eggs, begin their development in what structures?

Follicles

75

The growing follicles produce what specific group of hormones?

Estrogens

76

When a developing egg reaches the appropriate stage of maturity, what happens to it?

It is ejected from the ovary

77

When mature egg is ejected from the ovary, what is this event called?

Ovulation

78

After ovulation or the ejection of a mature egg from a follicle, what happens to the ruptured follicle? (Hint: what is it converted to? )

The ruptured follicle is converted to a corpus luteum

79

What is a corpus luteum? (Hint: what type of structure?)

An endocrine structure

80

The corpus luteum secretes what 2 types of hormones?

1. Progesterones

2. Some estrogens

81

Are the ovaries connected to the fallopian tubes?

No

82

An ovulated egg is also called what?

A secondary oocyte

83

An ovulated egg or secondary oocyte enters what cavity?

The pelvic cavity

84

An ovulated egg or secondary oocyte enters the pelvic cavity, and how is it drawn into the fallopian tubes?

The waving fimbriae of the fallopian tubes create fluid currents that draw the egg into the lumen of the tubes

85

Once inside the fallopian tubes, an ovulated egg or secondary oocyte makes its way to what internal reproductive structure?

Makes its way from the fallopian tubes to the uterus

86

The movement of an ovulated egg or secondary oocyte from the fallopian tubes to the uterus occurs how?

The cilia of the fallopian tubes propel the ovulated egg

87

What is the usual and most desirable site of fertilization?

The uterine tube

88

How long is an ovulated egg or secondary oocyte viable for after it is ejected from the ovaries?

24 hours

89

The journey of an egg from the ovary to the uterus is approximately how long? (Hint: Give range of days)

3-4 days

90

If the most desirable site of fertilization is the fallopian tubes, then how does the sperm reach the ovulated egg or secondary oocyte? (Hint: The sperm must bypass what 2 internal reproductive structures?)

Must swim through the vagina and uterus and into the fallopian tubes

91

The journey of a sperm to reach an ovulated egg/secondary oocyte is arduous because of what? (Hint: Think of current)

It must swim against the downward current of ciliary action

92
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