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Campbell Biology
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As you are on the way to Tahiti for a vacation, your plane crash-lands on a previously undiscovered island. You soon find that the island is teeming with unfamiliar organisms; and you, as a student of biology, decide to survey them (with the aid of the Insta-Lab Portable Laboratory you brought along in your suitcase). You select three organisms and observe them in detail, making note of the following:

Which organism would you classify as an animal?

A) Organism A

B) Organism B

C) Organism C



Which of the following would you classify as something other than an animal?

A) choanoflagellates
B) coral
C) jellyfish
D) sponges



What do animals ranging from corals to monkeys have in common?

A) presence of Hox genes
B) type of body symmetry
C) a mouth and an anus
D) number of embryonic tissue layers



The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a

A) multicellular fungus
B) flagellated protist
C) unicellular chytrid
D) multicellular algae



While looking at some seawater through your microscope, you spot the egg of an unknown animal. Which of the following tests could you use to determine whether the developing organism is a protostome or a deuterostome? A test to see whether the embryo _____.

A) develops an archenteron
B) exhibits spiral cleavage or radial cleavage.
C) develops germ layers
D) develops a blastopore



Which of the following is a feature of the tube-within-a-tube body plan in most animal phyla?

A) The outer tube consists of digestive organs.
B) The outer tube consists of a hard exoskeleton.
C) The two "tubes" are separated by tissue that comes from embryonic endoderm.
D) The mouth and anus form the ends of the inner tube.



If you think of the earthworm body plan as a drinking straw within a pipe, where would you expect to find most of the tissues that developed from endoderm?

A) lining the straw
B) forming the outside of the straw
C) lining the space between the pipe and the straw
D) forming the outside of the pipe



Among protostomes, which morphological trait has shown the most variation?

A) type of symmetry
B) type of development
C) type of body cavity ( coelom vs. pseudocoelom vs no coelom)
D) number of embryonic tissue layers



What do all deuterostomes have in common?

A) embryos have pharyngeal pouches that may or may not form gill slits
B) The pore (blastopore) formed during gastrulation becomes the anus.
C) Adults are bilaterally symmetrical.
D) All have a spinal column



An organism that exhibits cephalization probably also

A) is bilaterally symmetrical
B) is diploblastic
C) has a coelom
D) is segmented



Suppose a researcher for a pest-control company developed a chemical that inhibited the development of an embryonic mosquito's endodermal cells. Which of the following would be a likely mechanism by which this pesticide works?

A) The mosquito would develop a weakened exoskeleton that would make it vulnerable to trauma.
B) the mosquito won't be affected at all.
C) The mosquito would have trouble with respiration and circulation, due to impaired muscle function.
D) The mosquito would have trouble digesting food, due to impaired gut function.



12) Fossil evidence indicates that the following events occurred in what sequence, from earliest to most recent?

1. Protostomes invade terrestrial environments.
2. Cambrian explosion occurs.
3. Deuterostomes invade terrestrial environments.
4. Vertebrates become top predators in the seas.

A) 2 → 4 → 3 → 1
B) 2 → 1 → 4 → 3
C) 2 → 4 → 1 → 3
D) 2 → 3 → 1 → 4
E) 2 → 1 → 3 → 4



You find a new species of worm and want to classify it. Which of the following lines of evidence would allow you to classify the worm as a nematode and not an annelid?

A) It is segmented.
B) It is triploblastic.
C) It sheds its external skeleton to grow.
D) It has a coelom.



The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having
A) radial or bilateral symmetry.
B) a well-defined head or no head.
C) diploblastic or triploblastic embryos.
D) true tissues or no tissues.



What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent?

1. tetrapods
2. vertebrates
3. deuterostomes
4. amniotes
5. bilaterians

A) 5 → 3 → 2 → 1 → 4
B) 5 → 3 → 2 → 4 → 1
C) 5 → 3 → 4 → 2 → 1
D) 3 → 5 → 4 → 2 → 1
E) 3 → 5 → 2 → 1 → 4



The first generally accepted macroscopic fossils of animals date from about ____ years ago.

A) 560 million
B) 65 million
C) 2 million
D) 3.5 billion



What is true of the cambrian explosion?

A) There are fossils of animals in geological strata that are older than the Cambrian explosion
B) Only the fossils of microorganisms are found in geological strata older than the Cambrian explosion.
C) The Cambrian explosion is evidence for the instantaneous creation of life on Earth.
D) The Cambrian explosion marks the appearance of filter-feeding animals in the fossil record.



One should expect to find cilia associated with the feeding apparatus of ______.

A) annelids
B) tapeworms
C) sponges
D) coral animals



Which of the following is most likely to be aquatic?
A) suspension feeder
B) mass feeder
C) deposit feeder
D) fluid feeder



You find what you believe is a new species of animal. Which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue that it is more closely related to a flatworm than it is to a roundworm?

A) It has a mouth and an anus.
B) It has no coelom.
C) It is a suspension feeder.
D) It is shaped like a worm.



Which of the following organisms would you expect to have the largest surface-area-to-volume ratio? Assume that all of the following are the same total length.

A) a mollusk
B) a platyhelminth
C) an arthropod
D) an annelid



While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large numbers of fertilized eggs. The student rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a true coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a(n)
A) chordate.
B) echinoderm.
C) nematode.
D) mollusc.



Which characteristic(s) is (are) shared by both cnidarians and flatworms?
A) a digestive system with a single opening
B) true muscle
C) radial symmetry
D) dorsoventrally flattened bodies
E) two of these



Nematodes and arthropods both _____

A) are suspension feeders.
B) have ciliated larvae.
C) grow by shedding their exoskeleton.
D) develop an anus from the blastopore (pore) formed in the gastrula stage




1) undergo complete metamorphose
2) have jointed appendages
3) molt
4) have segmented bodies
5) have an exoskeleton or cuticle

A) 1,4,5
B) 1, 2, and 4
C) 3 and 5
D) 2, 3, 4, 5



The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?
A) Platyhelminthes
B) Arthropoda
C) Nematoda
D) Acoela



In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate, an open circulatory system, and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle, or a bivalve. The presence of which of the following structures would allow for the most certain identification of the organism?
A) a body cavity
B) a heart
C) a mantle
D) a filter-feeding apparatus



Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is correct?
A) Cnidaria–radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms
B) Nematoda–roundworms, pseudocoelomate
C) Echinodermata–bilateral symmetry as a larva, coelom present
D) Platyhelminthes–flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate



Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle?

A) vertebrae
B) four-chambered heart
C) jaws
D) post-anal tail



Vertebrates and tunicates share
A) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
B) a high degree of cephalization.
C) the formation of structures from the neural crest.
D) an endoskeleton that includes a skull.



Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?
A) lampreys
B) lungfishes
C) ray-finned fishes
D) chondrichthyans



Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).

1. lobe-fins
2. amphibians
3. gnathostomes
4. osteichthyans
5. tetrapods

A) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2
B) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
C) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1
D)4, 3, 2, 5, 1



Suppose while out camping in a forest, you found a chordate with a long, slender, limbless body slithering across the ground near your tent. This critter could be ___.

A) a skate
B) a mammal
C) an amphibian
D) a lampreys



A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was
A) the appearance of jaws.
B) the appearance of bony vertebrae.
C) the mineralization of the endoskeleton
D) feet with digits.



The evolution of similar insulating skin coverings such as fur, hair, and feathers in mammals and birds is a result of

A) homology
B) evolutionary divergence
C) convergent evolution
D) shared ancestry



Which of these are amniotes?
A) amphibians
B) fishes
C) lungfish
D) turtles



Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
A) lizards
B) birds
C) snakes
D) crocodiles



Which clade does not include humans?
A) synapsids
B) diapsids
C) lobe-fins
D) craniates



In what respect do hominins differ from all other anthropoids?

A) lack of a tail
B) eyes on the front of the face
C) bipedal posture
D) opposable thumbs



Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).

1. apes
2. hominins
3. Homo
4 anthropoids
5. primates

A) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3
B) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
C) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
D) 5, 2, 1, 4, 3



With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?
A) Humans evolved directly from Old World monkeys.
B) Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.
C) Humans represent the pinnacle of evolution and have escaped from being affected by natural selection.
D) Humans evolved from chimpanzees.



Penguins, seals, and tuna have body forms that permit rapid swimming, because ______.

A) the shape is a convergent evolutionary solution, which redues drag while swimming
B) this is the only shape that will allow them to maintain a constant body temperature in water
C) all share a recent common ancestor
D) all of their bodies have been compressed since birth by intensive underwater pressures.



As the size of some animals has evolved to greater sizes, the effectiveness of their adaptations that promote exchanges with the environment have also increased. For example, in many larger organisms, evolution has favored lungs and a digestive tract with _______.

A) increased thickness
B) decreased blood supply
C) more branching or folds
D) larger cells



Compared to a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has _______.

A) less surface area per unit of volume
B) a smaller average distance between its mitochondria and the external source of oxygen
C) a smaller cytoplasm to nucleus ratio
D) less surface area



Evolutionary adaptations that help diverse animals directly exchange matter between cells and the environment include ______.

A) an unbranched internal surface, a small body size, and thick covering
B) a large body volume, a long, tubular body, and a set of wings
C) a gastrovascular activity, a two-layered body, and a torpedo-like body shape
D) an external respiratory surface, a small body size, and a two-cell-layered body



Of the following choices, the epithelium with the shortest diffusion distance is ____.

A) simple columnar epithelium
B) simple squamous epithelium
C) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
D) stratified squamous epithelium



Blood is best classified as connective tissue because ______

A) it contains more than one type of cell
B) its cells are separated from each other by an extracellular matrix
C) its cells can move from place to place
D) it is found within all the organs of the body



Most types of communication between cells utilize _______.

A) chemical or electrical signals
B) the movement of the cells
C) the exchange of cytosol between the cells
D) the exchange of DNA between the cells



The type of muscle tissue surrounding the intestines and blood vessels is

A) skeletal muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) smooth muscle
D) intercalated cells



All types of muscle tissue have _______.

A) cells that lengthen when appropriately stimulated
B) striated banding patterns seen under the microscope
C) interactions between actin and myosin
D) a response that can be consciously controlled



Environmental influences appear to contribute to cellular mutations that lead to tumor growth. For example, certain diets lead to higher incidence of colon cancers, and overexposure to sunlight leads to higher incidence of skin cancers. The tissues in closest contact with a carcinogen or mutagen are obviously the ones most likely to develop tumors. Carcinomas and melanomas account for well over half of all cancers. What type of tissue would you guess the term carcinoma and melanoma is most closely associated with?

A) nervous
B) connective
C) muscle
D) epithelial



The body"s automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed _______.

A) physiological chance
B) static equilibrium
C) balanced equilibrium
D) homeostasis



When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of _______.

A) protein-protein interactions
B) catalytic feedback
C) negative feedback
D) positive feedback


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Examine the figure above. Near a goose's abdomen, the countercurrent arrangement of the arterial and venous blood vessels causes
A) the temperature at the abdomen to be less than the temperature at the feet.
B) the venous blood to be as cold near the abdomen as it is near the feet.
C) the blood in the feet to be as warm as the blood in the abdomen.
D) the temperature difference between the contents of the two sets of vessels to be minimized.



Most land-dwelling invertebrates and all of the amphibians
A) alter their metabolic rates to maintain a constant body temperature of 37°C.
B)are ectothermic organisms with variable body temperatures.
C) have a net loss of heat across a moist body surface, even in direct sun.
D) are endotherms but become thermoconformers only when they are in water.



A woman standing and watching the stars on a cool, calm night will lose most of her body heat by _______.

A) convection
B) conduction
C) radiation
D) evaporation



The panting responses that are observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by
A) countercurrent exchange.
B) acclimation.
C) evaporation
D) hibernation.



Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ________ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ________ would have the highest energy expenditure per unit mass.
A) elephant; mouse
B) elephant; human
C) human; penguin
D) mouse; snake



Hummingbirds are small birds that require a regular food supply. When hummingbirds are faced with the situation that decreases their food supply, such as a storm, which of the following adaptation would be most useful for the bird to survive such an unpredictable and short-term absence of food resources?

A) torpor
B) shivering
C) hibernation
D) burrowing into soil



Certain nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of some animals because
A) only those animals use those nutrients.
B) the nutrients are subunits of important polymers.
C) these animals are not able to synthesize these nutrients.
D) the nutrients are necessary coenzymes.



Which pair correctly associates a physiological process with the appropriate vitamin?
A) blood clotting and vitamin C
B) protection of skin from cancer and vitamin E
C) synthesis of cell membranes and vitamin D
D) normal vision and vitamin A



Folic acid supplements have become especially important for pregnant women because
A) folic acid supplies vitamins that only pregnant women can use.
B) the folic acid is stored in adipose tissue by pregnant women so supplements are needed to make more available in the circulation.
C) the fetus makes high levels of folic acid.
D) folic acid deprivation is associated with neural tube abnormalities in a fetus.



The process of obtaining food is known as _____ and requires specialized mouthparts.

A) absorption
B) digestion
C) excretion
D) ingestion



An advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity is that the complete system
A) excludes the need for extracellular digestion.
B) allows extensive branching.
C) allows digestive enzymes to be more specific.
D) allows specialized functions in specialized regions.



Because the foods eaten by animals are often composed largely of macromolecules, this requires the animals to have mechanisms for
A) elimination.
B) dehydration synthesis.
C) regurgitation.
D) enzymatic hydrolysis.



The large surface area in the gut directly facilitates
A) secretion.
B) absorption.
C) elimination.
D) filtration



The mammalian trachea and esophagus both connect to the
A) large intestine.
B) stomach.
C) rectum
D) pharynx.



The pancreas is involved in the digestion of

I) protein
II) fat
III) nucleic acids
IV) carbohydrates

A) I and III
B) I, II, and IV
C) II, III, and IV
D) I, II, III, and IV



Jahasz-pocsine and co workers found a correlation between gastric bypass surgery and neurological complications. Surgeons performed gastric bypass surgery on 150 patients at the neurological complications related to the surgery. What is the most likely cause for the neurological complications?

A) nutrient deficiencies
B) infections following surgical intervention
C) sloppy surgical technique of physicians performing the bypass surgery
D) sudden weight loss and caloric deficiency interfering with neurological function