Human Anatomy & Physiology: Final AP2 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is not a category of Endocrine Gland Stimulus?

A) Enzyme
B) Humoral
C)Neural
D)Hormonal

A) Enzyme

2

Chemical Substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called?

A) Enzymes
B) Antibodies
C) Proteins
D) Hormones

D) Hormones

3

The Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal tract_______.

A) Connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland

B) Is partly contained within the infundibulum

C) Conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis

D) is the site of prolactin synthesis

B) Is Partly Contained within the infundibulum

4

Oxytocin____.

A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

B) is an adenohypophyseal secretion

C) exerts its most important effects during menstruation

D) controls milk production.

A) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

5

ADH____

A) Increases urine production

B) Promotes dehydration

C) is produced in the adenohypophysis

D) Is inhibited by alcohol

D) is inhibited by alcohol

6

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of the hormone is dependent on_____.

A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path

B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ

C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

D) nothing all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific

C) The presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

7

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The Mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the_____.

A) hepatic portal system

B) General circulatory system

C) hypophyseal portal system

D) Feedback loop

C) Hypophyseal portal system

8

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.

A) it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release

B) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional

C) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location

D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

D) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

9

Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

B) finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity

C) stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen

D) increasing blood pressure

A) entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

10

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

A) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed

B) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ

C) not responding to a feedback mechanism

D) Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

D) Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

11

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

A) the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates

B) catabolic inhibition

C) protein synthesis

D) humoral stimulation

D) humoral stimulation

12

The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

A) the blood vessels

B) the adrenal glands

C) the liver

D) bones and skeletal muscles

D) bones and skeletal muscles

13

Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.

A) enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone-containing blood to the pituitary

B) enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary

C) travel by arteries to the pituitary

D) First enter into the hypophyseal portal system

D) First enter into the hypophyseal portal system

14

Which organ does not have hormone production?

A) heart

B) kidney

C) Liver

D) skin

C) Liver

15

A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-
stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.

A) FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males.

B) The physician is wrong a hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertility.

C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.

D) The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.

C) FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.

16

Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by ________.

A) Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

B) decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure

C) stimulating the pancreas to release insulin

D) blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response

A) Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

17

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

A) lymph follicles

B) Lymph nodes

C) axillary nodes

D) cisterna chili

B) Lymph nodes

18

The thymus is most active during ________.

A) fetal development

B) Childhood

C) Middle age

D) old age

B) Childhood

19

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A) lumbar trunk

B) thoracic duct

C) right lymphatic duct

D) cisterna chili

C) right lymphatic duct

20

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A) More permeable than blood capillaries

B) less permeable than blood capillaries

C) as permeable as blood capillaries

D) completely impermeable

A) More permeable than blood capillaries

21

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A) T lymphocytes

B) Plasma cells

C) lymph nodes

D) medullary cords

B) Plasma cells

22

Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

A) Efferent lymphatic vessels

B) afferent lymphatic vessels

C) the cortical sinus

D) the subscapular sinus

A) Efferent lymphatic vessels

23

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

A) basophils

B) Lymphocytes

C) macrophages

D) monocytes

B) Lymphocytes

24

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

A) Tonsil

B) thymus

C) Peyer's patch

D) appendix

A) Tonsil

25

Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

A) tonsil

B) Thymus

C) Peyer's patch

D) appendix

B) Thymus

26

Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?

A) bones and teeth

B) bone marrow

C) CNS

D) Digestive organs

D) Digestive organs

27

What is a bubo?

A) a wall in a lymph node

B) a lobe of the spleen

C) an infected Peyer's patch

D) An infected lymph node

D) An infected lymph node

28

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A) have lymphocytes

B) produce hormones

C) have a cortex and medulla

D) Directly fight antigens

D) Directly fight antigens

29

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A) inguinal region

B) cervical region

C) axillary region

D) Lower extremities

D) Lower extremities

30

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A) skeletal muscle contraction

B) breathing

C) valves in lymph vessel walls

D) Smooth muscle contraction

D) Smooth muscle contraction

31

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

A) Lingual tonsils

B) palatine tonsils

C) pharyngeal tonsils

D) Peyer's tonsils

A) Lingual tonsils

32

Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

A) house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes

B) house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils

C) furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages

D) A and C

D) A and C

33

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

A) cytotoxic

B) Antigenic

C) helper

D) regulatory

B) Antigenic

34

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

A) thymus

B) spleen

C) Bone marrow

D) lymph nodes

C) Bone marrow

35

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

A) prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue

B) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

C) disposes of cellular debris and pathogens

D) sets the stage for repair processes

B) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

36

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

A) vasodilation

B) vasoconstriction

C) phagocyte mobilization

D) production of complement and interferon

A) vasodilation

37

In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

A) antigen

B) interferon

C) antibody

D) complement

A) antigen

38

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the

________.

A) regulatory cells

B) helper cells

C) cytotoxic cells

D) plasma cells

C) cytotoxic cells

39

________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

A) Basophils

B) Eosinophils

C) Macrophages

D) B cells

C) Macrophages

40

Interferons ________.

A) are virus-specific, so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus

B) act by increasing the rate of cell division

C) Interfere with viral replication within cells

D) are routinely used in nasal sprays for the common cold

C) Interfere with viral replication within cells

41

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

A) natural killer cells

B) T lymphocytes

C) B lymphocytes

D) pinocytosis

A) natural killer cells

42

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

A) It is antigen-specific.

B) It is systemic.

C) It has memory.

D) It is specific for a given organ.

D) It is specific for a given organ.

43

Innate immune system defenses include ________.

A) B cells

B) T cells

C) plasma cells

D) phagocytosis

D) phagocytosis

44

Fever ________.

A) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous

B) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy

C) Production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

D) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication

C) Production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

45

Immunocompetence ________.

A) occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system

B) Is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

C) prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader

D) requires exposure to an antigen

B) Is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

46

Clonal selection of B cells ________.

A) occurs during fetal development

B) Results in the formation of plasma cells

C) cannot occur in the presence of antigens

D) only occurs in the secondary immune response

B) Results in the formation of plasma cells

47

The primary immune response ________.

A) occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response

B) occurs when memory cells are stimulated

C) is another name for immunological memory

D) Has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

D) Has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

48

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

A) Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

B) protects cells that have not yet been infected by bacteria

C) activates the complement mechanism

D) activates the inflammatory process

A) Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses