Chapter 21 Multiple Choice

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1

Which of the following is a characteristic of antibodies?

B. composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

2

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

3

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

antigenic

4

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the _____.

Bone marrow

5

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

Replaces injured tissues with connective tissues

6

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by

vasodialation

7

The antibody molecule is held together by ____ bonds.

disulfide

8

In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?

Antigen

9

Which of the following statements regarding NK cell is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil

10

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cell are attracted to an inflammatory site is called

chemotaxis

11

Small molecules that bind with self proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ____.

haptens

12

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis

Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

13

The only T cells that can attack and kill other cells are the _____.

Cytotoxic cells

14

Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?

Pathogens in the CNS

15

______ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

Macrophages

16

Interferons _______.

Interfere with viral replication within cells

17

______ determine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

our genes

18

Regulatory T cells _______.

may function in preventing autoimmune reactions

19

Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.

Isografts are between identical twins

20

Which of the following below does not describe antigens?

Antigens only come from microbes

21

______ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells an attract other leukocytes into the air.

Cytokines

22

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

Phagocytes

23

Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

24

B cell respond to the initial antigen challenge by ____.

Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memorycells

25

Graft rejection may be caused by _______.

using a xenograft

26

Cancer cells and virus-infected cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by _____.

natural killer cells

27

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ____.

Opsonization

28

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ

29

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ____.

Juvenile diabetes

30

Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?

Allergic contact dermatitis

31

Innate immune system defenses include _____.

Phagocytosis

32

Which of the following statements is considered incorrect or false?

Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen - presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been active by exposure to antigens

33

Phagocyte mobilization involves ______.

Mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

34

Fever ______.

Production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

35

Immunocompetence _______.

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it.

36

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self".

Tolerance is developed during fetal life

37

Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies

38

Cytotoxic T cells ______

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells

39

Helper T cells _____.

function in the adaptive immune system activation

40

Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.

The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a virus that recognized CD4 proteins.

41

Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities

They involve IgE antibodis and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils

42

Delayed hypersensitivities ________.

Include allergic contact dermatitis.

43

Natural Killer (nk) cells ______.

can kill the cancer cells before the immune system is activated.

44

Select the correct statement about antiges.

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody

45

Clonal selection of B cells ______.

Results in the formation of plasma cells

46

The primary immune response _____.

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

47

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide proection

48

Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

Helper T cell

49

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

Type II disease

50

Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?

A second exposure to an allergen

51

Select the correct statement about complement

An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target

52

Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?

IgM contains 10 binding sites

53

Antibody functions include all of the following except

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

54

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2

55

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ____ to attract white blood cells to the scene.

Cytokines

56

Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

activating cytokines

57

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

58

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

After becoming immunocompetent, the naïve T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur