Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 16 Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Pmurillo
10,553 views
EXAM 4
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the autonomic nervous system?

  1. controls skeletal muscle
  2. can trigger visceral reflexes
  3. controls visceral effectors
  4. has preganglionic and postganglionic neurons

Controls skeletal muscle

2

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?

  1. Increases heart rate and blood pressure
  2. Is the thoracolumbar division
  3. Is the fight-or-flight division
  4. Increases activity of the digestive tract

Increases activity of the digestive tract

3

What is the term for the chain of ganglia in the sympathetic nervous system that lie right outside the vertebral colum?

  1. sympathetic chain ganglia
  2. collateral ganglia
  3. dorsal root ganglia
  4. intramural ganglia

Sympathetic chain ganglia

4

What is the name of the endocrine gland that is innervated by the sympathetic division of the nervous system and is a modified sympathetic ganglion?

  1. sebaceous gland
  2. suprarenal medulla
  3. pituitary gland
  4. thyroid gland

Suprarenal medulla

5

Which of the following is NOT an effect of the sympathetic nervous system?

  1. an increase in mental alertness
  2. mobilization of energy reserves
  3. a decrease in heart rate
  4. elevation of muscle tone

A decrease in heart rate

6

Which of the following is NOT a neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic nervous system?

  1. nitric oxide
  2. norepinephrine
  3. acetylcholine
  4. all of the listed neurotransmitters are used by the sympathetic nervous system

All of the listed neurotransmitters are used by the sympathetic nervous system

7

Which of the following sympathetic receptors causes an increase in heart rate and force of contraction and an increase in metabolic activity?

  1. beta-2
  2. beta-1
  3. alpha-1
  4. alpha-2

Beta-1

8

Which of the following is NOT a region where parasympathetic preganglionic neurons are found?

  1. spinal cord segment T4
  2. spinal cord segment S2
  3. medulla oblongata
  4. pons

Spinal cord segment T4

9

What is the term for parasympathetic ganglia that are embedded in the tissues of the target organ?

  1. collateral ganglia
  2. dorsal root ganglia
  3. intramural ganglia
  4. chain ganglia

Intramural ganglia

10

Which of the following is NOT an effect of the parasympathetic division?

  1. contraction of the urinary bladder
  2. constriction of the pupils
  3. a feeling of energy and euphoria
  4. reduction in heart rate

A feeling of energy and euphoria

11

Which of the following neurotransmitters is released by parasympathetic neurons?

  1. nitric oxide
  2. norepinephrine
  3. epinephrine
  4. acetylcholine

Acetylcholine

12

What parasympathetic receptor is found on ganglionic neurons and causes excitation?

  1. beta-3
  2. nicotinic
  3. muscarinic
  4. alpha-1

Nicotinic

13

In organs that receive dual innervation from the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, the two divisions produce _________.

  1. oposing effects
  2. an inhibition of autonomic tone
  3. always complementary effects
  4. identical effects

Opposing effects

14

Visceral reflexes ___________.

  1. can be short
  2. are all polysynaptic
  3. can be long
  4. are all polysynaptic and can be either short or long

Are all polysynaptic and can be either short or long

15

Which higher brain region is NOT involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system?

  1. cerebral cortex
  2. brain stem
  3. cerebellum
  4. hypothalamus

Cerebellum

16

Learned motor behaviors are __________.

  1. fact memories
  2. short-term memories
  3. skill memories
  4. primary memories

Skill memories

17

In what state does active dreaming occur?

  1. coma
  2. deep sleep
  3. awake
  4. rapid eye movement (R.E.M.) sleep

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

18

What part of the brain functions to wake a person from sleep?

  1. thalamus
  2. primary motor cortex
  3. reticular activating system (RAS)
  4. limbic system

Reticular activating system (RAS)

19

Which of the following receptor types is activated by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)?

  1. serotonin
  2. acetylcholine
  3. dopamine
  4. norepinephrine

Serotonin

20

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the nervous system?

  1. increase in synaptic connections
  2. decrease in neurotransmitter production
  3. reduction of brain size and weight
  4. decrease in blood flow to the brain

Increase in synaptic connections

21

In the somatic nervous system, __________.

  1. a third visceral motor neuron is between the central nervous system and the effector
  2. preganglionic neurons directly control skeletal muscle
  3. four or more motor neurons control the activity of a muscle
  4. a single lower motor neuron directly controls the activity of a muscle

A single lower motor neuron directly controls the activity of a muscle

22

In the autonomic nervous system, ________.

  1. a second visceral neuron is between the central nervous system and the effector
  2. two or more neurons control the activity of an effector
  3. a single motor neuron directly controls a skeletal muscle
  4. two or more neurons control the activity of an effector, and a second visceral neuron is between the central nervous system and the effector

Two or more neurons control the activity of an effector, and a second visceral neuron is between the central nervous system and the effector

23

As a general rule, the sympathetic division _________.

  1. increases the metabolic rate
  2. reduces digestive and urinary functions
  3. decreases heart rate
  4. increases the metabolic rate and reduces digestive and urinary functions

Increases the metabolic rate and reduces digestive and urinary functions

24

The parasympathetic division ____________.

  1. conserves energy
  2. activates the "rest and response" reaction
  3. activates the "fight or flight" reaction
  4. activates the "rest and response" reaction and conserves energy

Activates the "rest and repose" reaction and conserves energy

25

The autonomic nervous system __________.

  1. regulates "automatic" activities
  2. is influenced by the hypothalamus
  3. is influenced by your peers
  4. regulates "automatic" activities and is influenced by the hypothalamus

Regulates "automatic" activities and is influenced by the hypothalamus

26

Which of the following statements about the autonomic nervous system is INCORRECT?

  1. The sympathetic and parasympathetic functions most often produce opposing effects on a system or organ
  2. The parasympathetic division is also called the craniosacral division
  3. Heart rate and blood pressure are increased under parasympathetic stimulation
  4. Loss of all conscious brain activity is not life threatening if food and water are provided, because the autonomic nervous system maintains all needed body functions

Heart rate and blood pressure are increased under parasympathetic stimulation

27

Ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division can be located in the _________.

  1. adrenal medulla
  2. sympathetic chain ganglia
  3. collateral ganglia
  4. adrenal medulla, collateral ganglia, and sympathetic chain ganglia

adrenal medulla, collateral ganglia, and sympathetic chain ganglia

28

The prevertebral (collateral) ganglia of the ANS include the ________.

  1. mandibular, maxillary, and ophthalmic
  2. celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric
  3. vestibulocochlear, trochlear, and lacrimal
  4. vestibulocochlear, trochlear, lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, and ophthalmic

celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric

29

Which of these would NOT occur under sympathetic stimulation?

  1. activation of energy reserves
  2. increased respiratory rate
  3. increased metabolic rate
  4. increased storage of lipid and glycogen

Increased storage of lipid and glycogen

30

The sympathetic division does NOT include which of the following?

  1. collateral ganglia
  2. adrenal medullae
  3. intramural ganglia
  4. chain ganglia

Intramural ganglia

31

Jennifer is at a stoplight and begins to accelerate into traffic when the light turns green, but she stops suddenly as a semitrailer runs the red light only a few inches away from her front bumper. Which of the following effects would you NOT expect to find in Jennifer's body?

  1. increased alertness and feelings of being "on edge"
  2. increased digestive activity
  3. increased cardiovascular and respiratory activity
  4. a general elevation in muscle tone and possibly shivering

Increased digestive activity

32

The telodendria of sympathetic postganglionic neurons release neurotransmitters through _______.

  1. neurotransmitter junctions
  2. synaptic knobs
  3. varicosities
  4. synaptic knobs and neurotransmitter junctions

Varicosities

33

Which of the following statements is true of the effects of norepinephrine on the postsynaptic membranes?

  1. they last longer than the effects of acetylcholine, and they last until NE is re absorbed by the telodendria
  2. they last until NE diffuses away
  3. they last until NE is broken down by cholinesterase
  4. none of the listed responses is correct

They last longer than the effects of acetylcholine, and they last until NE is reabsorbed by the telodendria

34

Stimulation of what type of membrane receptor by norepinephrine would activate enzymes that break down glycogen in skeletal muscles?

  1. alpha-1
  2. alpha-2
  3. beta-1
  4. beta-2

Beta-1

35

Stimulation of the beta receptors on the heart muscle would result in _________.

  1. a decreased rate of contraction
  2. a decreased force of cardiac contraction
  3. the formation of cAMP
  4. the formation of cAMP and a decreased rate of contraction

The formation of cAMP

36

Binding to which of the following receptors of the ANS causes a DECREASE in cAMP levels?

  1. nicotinic
  2. alpha-2
  3. beta-1
  4. muscarinic

Alpha-2

37

Which of the following statements about neurotransmitters and receptors is INCORRECT?

  1. Sympathetic stimulation is longer lasting than parasympathetic stimulation
  2. Norepinephrine is quickly broken down at synapses but not in the bloodstream
  3. Sympathetic activation is more widespread than parasympathetic activation
  4. Secretory output from the adrenal medullae is about 90 - 95% epinephrine

Secretory output from the adrenal medullae and is about 90-95% epinephrine

38

Which type of sympathetic receptor causes inhibition and a relaxation of smooth muscles along the respiratory tract?

  1. alpha-1
  2. alpha-2
  3. beta-1
  4. beta-2
  5. beta-3

Beta-2

39

Which of the following effects is NOT a result of parasympathetic activity?

  1. an increase in smooth muscle activity along the digestive tract
  2. a general elevation of muscle tone so that a person looks tense and may begin to shiver
  3. constriction of respiratory passageways
  4. sexual arousal and stimulation of sexual glands in both genders

A general elevation of muscle tone so that a person looks tense and may begin to shiver

40

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the parasympathetic division?

  1. The parasympathetic division includes the splanchnic nerves.
  2. Ganglia are on or near the target organ.
  3. The parasympathetic division includes the pelvic nerves.
  4. Preganglionic neurons are located in the brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord.

The parasympathetic division includes splanchnic nerves

41

Don has had a long day at work. He comes home, eats dinner, relaxes on the couch, and watches a few television programs. What type of response would you NOT expect to find in Don's body during his relaxation period?

  1. stimulation of urination and defecation
  2. decreased heart rate and blood pressure
  3. increased motility and blood flow in the digestive tract
  4. increased respiratory activity

Increased respiratory activity

42

Which of the following statements about the parasympathetic division is INCORRECT?

  1. Preganglionic neurons may have their cell bodies in spinal cord segments S2 through S4
  2. Ganglionic neurons have their cell bodies within or adjacent to the target organs
  3. Preganglionic neurons may have their cell bodies in the brain stem
  4. Ganglia are located relatively close to the central nervous system

Ganglia are located relatively close to the central nervous system

43

Which of the following statements is true?

  1. The vagus nerve is number VII and is part of the sympathetic division
  2. The vagus nerve is number X and is part of the parasympathetic division
  3. The vagus nerve is number VII and is part of the autonomic division
  4. All of the listed responses are correct

The vagus nerve is number X and is part of the parasympathetic division

44

Nicotinic receptors _________.

  1. respond to norepinephrine
  2. open sodium channels when stimulated
  3. response to epinephrine
  4. open calcium channels when stimulated

Open sodium channels when stimulated

45

Which of the following statements is FALSE about autonomic neurotransmitters and receptors in the autonomic nervous system?

  1. stimulation of muscarinic receptors always excites the postsynaptic cell
  2. stimulation of beta-1 receptors always stimulates and increases energy consumption in the postsynaptic cell
  3. stimulation of nicotinic receptors always excites the postsynaptic cell
  4. stimulation of alpha-2 receptors general inhibits or relaxes the postsynaptic cell

Stimulation of muscarinic receptors always excites the postsynaptic cell

46

The heart, lungs, and digestive organs are innervated by __________.

  1. the parasympathetic division
  2. the sympathetic division
  3. both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  4. neither the sympathetic or parasympathetic divisions

Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

47

Which of the following organs does NOT receive dual innervation?

  1. heart
  2. stomach
  3. urinary bladder
  4. lacrimal gland

Lacrimal gland

48

In the absence of stimuli, the autonomic motor neurons __________.

  1. are completely inhibited
  2. are completely active
  3. show a background level of activity
  4. are completely inhibited and are completely active

Show a background level of activity

49

Autonomic tone allows autonomic neurons to __________.

  1. decrease their activity
  2. increase their activity
  3. both increase and decrease their activity
  4. neither increase nor decrease their activity

Both increase and decrease their activity

50

In the lungs, autonomic tone allows for _________.

  1. finely controlled dilation and constriction of the airways
  2. dilation of the airways
  3. large changes in the diameter of the bronchi
  4. constriction of the airways

Finely controlled dilation and constriction of the airways

51

Autonomic fibers entering the thoracic cavity intersect at which of the following plexuses?

  1. inferior mesenteric plexus
  2. cardiac plexus
  3. celiac plexus
  4. all of the listed responses are correct

Cardiac plexus

52

Which plexus innervated the stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and liver?

  1. pulmonary plexus
  2. cardiac plexus
  3. esophageal plexus
  4. celiac plexus

Celiac plexus

53

You stand up after sitting in class for an hour. Signals from the baroreceptors in the carotid artery tell the brain that blood pressure is dropping. Your heart must compensate and increase blood pressure. How is this accomplished?

  1. Parasympathetic fibers in the cardiac plexus release stimulatory neurotransmitters
  2. Parasympathetic fibers in the pulmonary plexus release stimulatory neurotransmitters that decrease heart rate
  3. Sympathetic fibers in the pulmonary plexus release stimulatory neurotransmitters that increase heart rate
  4. Sympathetic fibers in the cardiac plexus release stimulatory neurotransmitters

Sympathetic fibers in the cardiac plexus release stimulatory transmitters

54

Visceral reflexes are _________.

  1. involuntary
  2. monosynaptic
  3. polysynaptic
  4. polysynaptic and involuntary

Polysynaptic and involuntary

55

The higher centers of the CNS __________.

  1. have total control of the autonomic reflexes
  2. influence the effects of the autonomic reflexes
  3. have no effect on autonomic reflexes
  4. have total control of autonomic reflexes and influence the effects of autonomic reflexes

Influence the effects of autonomic reflexes

56

Which of the following visceral reflexes is controlled by the sympathetic division?

  1. pupillary reflex
  2. baroreceptor reflex
  3. light and consensual light reflexes
  4. swallowing reflex

Pupillary reflex

57

Which of the following is NOT feature of rapid eye movement sleep?

  1. active dreaming
  2. contraction of the lateral, medial, inferior and superior rictus muscles
  3. inhibition of somatic sensory neurons
  4. inhibition of somatic motor neurons

Inhibition of somatic sensory neurons

58

What kind of memory allows you to remember the shape and features of your own face throughout your lifetime?

  1. primary memory
  2. secondary memory
  3. tertiary memory
  4. quaternary memory

Tertiary memory

59

When studying in lab, Anne repeats, over and over, the names of the structures she is studying. What is Anne trying to accomplish?

  1. conversion from primary memories to secondary memories
  2. creation of fact memories
  3. memory consolidation
  4. all of the listed responses are correct

All of the listed responses are correct

60

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the nervous system?

  1. a decrease in blood flow to the brain
  2. a reduction in brain size and weight
  3. an increase in the number of neurons used for dual innervation
  4. changes in synaptic organization of CNS neurons

An increase in the number of neurons used for dual innervation