Biology 1012 Exam I Flashcards
1) Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false ?
A) Organisms have the ability to take in energy and use it.
B) Organisms have the ability to respond to stimuli from the environment.
C) Organisms have the ability to reproduce.
D) Organisms have an unchanging, constant internal environment
2) Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy from least inclusive to most inclusive?
A) ecosystem, population, organ system, cell, community, molecule, organ, organism, organelle, tissue
B) cell, molecule, organ system, organ, organelle, population, tissue, organism, ecosystem, community
C) molecule, cell, organism, organ system, tissue, population, organ, organelle, community, ecosystem
D) molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
4) The tree in your backyard is home to two cardinals, a colony of ants, a wasp's nest, two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, all of these organisms represent
A) a species.
B) a community.
C) a population.
D) an ecosystem.
5) If you eat a hamburger, you are mainly eating ground-up beef muscle. What levels of organization are represented in this ground-up muscle?
A) organism, population, and community
B) organ, organ system, and organism
C) organelle, cell, and tissue
D) tissue, organ, and organ system
6) Which of the following statements regarding a common cellular activity is false ?
A) Cells respond to the environment.
B) Cells develop and maintain complex organization.
C) Cells regulate their internal environment.
D) New cells are derived from cellular components like organelles.
8) Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false ?
A) Bacteria and fungi recycle energy within an ecosystem.
B) Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are producers in ecosystems.
C) Chemical nutrients cycle within an ecosystem.
D) In the process of energy conversions within an ecosystem, some energy is converted to heat.
9) In an ecosystem, energy
A) cycles along with chemical nutrients.
B) typically flows from consumers to producers to decomposers.
C) typically flows from producers through a series of consumers.
D) comes ultimately from bacteria.
10) Which of the following statements about genetics is true ?
A) Genes are proteins that produce DNA.
B) DNA is made up of six different kinds of nucleotides.
C) Differences among organisms reflect different nucleotide sequences in their DNA.
D) Each DNA molecule is a single strand of nucleotides.
12) Which of the following statements about the domain Bacteria is true ?
A) Archaea belong to this domain.
B) All bacteria have a membrane-bound nucleus.
C) All bacteria are multicellular organisms.
D) All bacteria lack a nucleus.
21) Consider the following statement: "If all vertebrates have backbones, and turtles are vertebrates, then turtles have backbones." This statement is an example of
A) a hypothesis.
C) deductive reasoning.
D) inductive reasoning.
27) A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that
A) the experiment is repeated many times to ensure that the results are accurate.
B) the experiment proceeds at a slow pace to guarantee that the scientist can carefully observe all reactions and process all experimental data.
C) two versions of the experiment are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable.
D) one experiment is performed, but the scientist controls the variables.
31) During a discussion about ecosystems, a student says, "Plants eat sunlight, and animals eat other organisms." Which of the following responses to the student's comment is most accurate?
A) Plants don't eat sunlight; they eat sugars that they get from the soil.
B) Plants don't eat sunlight; they use it to make sugars.
C) Plants eat sunlight, but they also eat other organism such as decomposers.
D) Plants eat sunlight, but animals also eat bacteria, which are not considered organisms.
32) Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false ?
A) Energy cycles from organisms through the atmosphere and back to the organisms.
B) Carbon cycles from the atmosphere through organisms and back to the atmosphere.
C) Energy of sunlight is converted to energy stored in sugar molecules.
D) Most energy that enters the ecosystem leaves the system as heat.
33) Which of these sequences is not a correct pathway of energy through an ecosystem?
A) insects → birds → bacteria
B) plants → insects → birds
C) plants → birds → bacteria
D) bacteria → plants → birds
1) The four most common elements in living organisms are
A) C, H, O, Fe.
B) C, H, O, Na.
C) C, H, O, N.
D) C, N, O, Na.
3) Which of the following statements regarding matter is false ?
A) All life is composed of matter.
B) All matter has mass.
C) All matter is composed of elements.
D) All matter exists in the form of compounds.
25) The body uses atoms in different ways to accomplish different tasks. For example, one portion of the body's calcium supply strengthens bones, whereas another portion combines with proteins to stimulate blood clotting after tissue injury. Which of the following statements provides the most logical chemical explanation of calcium's ability to perform such different functions?
A) The bone contains calcium salts, which are less reactive than the calcium ions found in the blood.
B) The calcium in blood is a more reactive form of the atom and therefore has fewer protons than the calcium in bone.
C) There are many different isotopes of calcium, and the most reactive isotope is found in the bone.
D) The calcium in blood has a lighter atomic mass than the calcium in bone and is in a more reactive form.
28) Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true ?
A) Oxygen is more positively charged than the hydrogen atoms.
B) Oxygen attracts electrons less strongly than the hydrogen atoms.
C) Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
D) Oxygen is attracted to the negatively charged atoms of other molecules.
29) In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a ________ bond.
A) double covalent
B) nonpolar covalent
D) polar covalent
31) The hydrogen atoms of a water molecule are bonded to the oxygen atom by ________ bonds, whereas neighboring water molecules are held together by ________ bonds.
A) hydrogen; polar covalent
B) polar covalent; hydrogen
C) ionic; covalent
D) polar covalent; ionic
34) Which of the following statements regarding chemical reactions is false ?
A) Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds.
B) Some chemical reactions create electrons; others destroy them.
C) The reactants contain the same number of atoms as the products.
D) Although the atoms of a reaction's reactants and products are identical to each other, their molecular formulas differ.
37) The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as
40) As ice melts,
A) hydrogen bonds are broken.
B) water molecules become less tightly packed.
C) the water becomes less dense.
D) heat is released.
45) A pharmaceutical company hires a chemist to analyze the purity of the water being used in its drug preparations. If the water is pure, the chemist would expect to find
A) only molecules of H2O.
B) H2O molecules and H+ ions.
C) H2O molecules, H+ ions, and OH- ions.
D) only H+ ions and OH- ions.
49) Household ammonia has a pH of 12; household bleach has a pH of 13. Which of the following statements about these substances is true ?
A) Both of these substances are strong acids.
B) The ammonia has 10 times as many OH- ions as the bleach.
C) The ammonia has 10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach.
D) A solution that could buffer the bleach and ammonia would remove excess OH- ions.
54) Consider the following situations: (1) a magnesium atom and two chlorine atoms join together to form a molecule of magnesium chloride; (2) water molecules interact with each other in a beaker; and (3) two carbon atom and six hydrogen atoms join together to form ethane. Rank the strength of the bonding interactions taking place in each situation, from the weakest bonds to the strongest bonds.
A) 1 < 2 < 3
B) 3 < 2 < 1
C) 2 < 3 < 1
D) 2 < 1 < 3
57) Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration, in which glucose is used to generate ATP to power the cell. The major chemical reaction that takes place in glycolysis (ignoring some other reactants and products) is the conversion of glucose (C6H12O6) to pyruvate (C3H4O3) and hydrogen ions (H+). Using this information, what is the correct equation for the glycolysis chemical reaction?
A) C6H12O6 → C3H4O3 + H+
B) C6H12O6 → 2 C3H4O3 + 2 H+
C) C6H12O6 → 2 C3H4O3 + H+
D) 2 C6H12O6 → C3H4O3 + 2 H+
4) Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false ?
A) Carbon has a tendency to form covalent bonds.
B) Carbon has the ability to bond with up to six other atoms.
C) Carbon has the capacity to form single and double bonds.
D) Carbon has the ability to bond together to form extensive branched or unbranched "carbon skeletons."
5) Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false ?
A) Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.
B) Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
C) Hydrocarbons consist of atoms linked by single or double bonds.
D) Hydrocarbons can form straight, branched, or ringed structures.
6) Propanol and isopropanol are isomers. This means that they have
A) the same molecular formula but different chemical properties.
B) different molecular formulas but the same chemical properties.
C) the same molecular formula and the same chemical properties.
D) the same molecular formula but represent different states of the compound.
7) A hydroxyl group is
A) also called a carbonyl group.
B) characteristic of proteins.
C) characteristic of alcohols.
D) composed of two oxygen atoms.
10) Which of the following statements about the functional groups of organic compounds is false ?
A) Functional groups may help make organic compounds hydrophilic.
B) Many biological molecules have two or more functional groups.
C) Functional groups participate in chemical reactions.
D) All functional groups include a carbon atom.
11) Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?
A) amino acid
13) Which of the following statements about the monomers and polymers found in living organisms is false ?
A) Cells typically make all of their macromolecules from a set of 40-50 common monomers and a few other ingredients that are rare.
B) The monomers used to make polymers are essentially universal.
C) Monomers serve as building blocks for polymers.
D) Monomers are joined together by the process of hydrolysis.
14) Which of the following statements about dehydration synthesis is false ?
A) One monomer loses a hydrogen atom, and the other loses a hydroxyl group.
B) H2O is formed as the monomers are joined.
C) Covalent bonds are formed between the monomers.
D) Animal digestive systems utilize this process to break down food.
17) The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of
18) A molecule with the formula C55H110O55 is probably a(n)
20) Sucrose is formed
A) from two glucose molecules.
B) from two monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis.
C) when ionic bonds link two monosaccharides.
D) when glucose and lactose are combined.
21) A disaccharide forms when
A) two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis.
B) two starches join by dehydration synthesis.
C) two monosaccharides join by hydrolysis.
D) two starches join by hydrolysis.
22) High-fructose corn syrup is made from corn. The main carbohydrate in corn is a polysaccharide called
23) Which of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?
A) sucrose, starch, and cellulose
B) starch, amino acids, and glycogen
C) cellulose, starch, and glycogen
D) fructose, cellulose, and glucose
31) What feature of fats makes them hydrophobic?
A) Fats have carboxyl groups.
B) Fats include one glycerol molecule.
C) Fats have polar fatty acids.
D) Fats have nonpolar hydrocarbon chains.
32) Fatty acids are
A) composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
B) composed of carbon, hydrogen, glycerol, and a phosphate group.
D) composed of four linked rings.
33) Which of the following statements regarding triglyceride molecules is false ?
A) Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
B) Triglycerides play a role in energy storage.
C) Triglycerides are a type of fat.
D) Triglycerides are hydrophilic.
38) A phospholipid is composed of
A) one fatty acid molecule linked to three glycerol molecules.
B) one glycerol molecule linked to three phosphate groups.
C) one fatty acid molecule linked to one glycerol molecule and two phosphate groups.
D) one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids.
42) Amino acids can be distinguished from one another by
A) the number of R groups found on the amino acid molecules.
B) the chemical properties of their R groups.
C) the type of bond between the R group and the rest of the amino acid molecule.
D) the chemical properties of their amino and carboxyl groups.
45) Peptide bonds
A) are used to form amino acids.
B) form between fatty acids.
C) are formed by a hydrolysis reaction.
D) link amino acids.
52) The primary structure of a protein is
A) an alpha helix or a pleated sheet.
B) the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain.
C) composed of two or more polypeptide chains.
D) maintained by hydrogen bonds.
57) How are genes used by cells to build proteins?
A) The genes in DNA direct the synthesis of an RNA molecule, which is used to build a protein.
B) The genes in RNA direct the synthesis of a DNA molecule, which is used to build a protein.
C) DNA is transcribed into an amino acid sequence.
D) The genes in RNA direct the synthesis of proteins directly.
58) Which of the following statements regarding nucleotides is false ?
A) Nucleotides contain lipids.
B) Nucleotides contain sugar molecules.
C) Nucleotides can be linked together to form nucleic acids.
D) Nucleotides contain nitrogenous bases.
59) Which of the following options correctly pairs a polymer and its monomer?
A) cellulose, amino acids
B) DNA, nucleotides
C) collagen, nucleic acids
D) RNA, ribose