Microbial diseases of the respiratory system

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Microbiology
Chapter 24
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1

The lower respiratory tract is protected by all of the following EXCEPT

competition with the normal flora of the lungs

2

which of the following is mismatched

epiglottitis - sore throat

3

members of the group A streptococci cause all of the following except

epiglottitis

4

Which of the following statements about mycoplasmal pneumonia is TRUE?

treatment is tetracycline

5

which of the following is not a typical symptom of influenza

diarrhea

6

which of the following is mismatched

mycoplasma - gram positive pleomorphic rod

7

which of the following microorganisms causes symptoms most like tuberculosis

histoplasma

8

all of the following can lead to positive tuberculin skin test except

being near someone with tuberculosis

9

Which of the following diseases is not correctly matched to its vaccine

tuberculosis - toxoid

10

which of the following diseases has a cutaneous form, especially in individuals over 30 years of age?

diphteria

11

which of the following requires treatment with both antibiotics and antitoxins

diptheria

12

which of the following is mismatched

Q fever - rickettsia

13

which of the following does not cause otitis media

coxiella burnetii

14

which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients

Pneumocystis, aspergillus, rhizopus, mucor

15

all of the following are true of the common cold except

early treatment will drastically reduce the disease symptoms

16

which of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal. and convalescent stages

bordetella pertussis

17

which of the following is an irregular, gram positive rod

corynebacterium diphtheriae

18

infection by which of the following results in the formation of ghon complexes

mycobacterium tuberculosis

19

which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin

corynebacterium diphtheriae

20

the most effective means of preventing influenza is

annual vaccination

21

which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen

pneumocystis

22

which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses

blastomyces

23

the primary victims of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 were

young adults

24

all of the following are used as first line drugs for treating tuberculosis except

fluoroquinolones

25

infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia

mycoplasma

26

the patient is suffocating because of the accumulation of dead tissue and fibrin in her throat. what is the etiology of the symptoms

corynebacterium

27

the patient is suffocating because of inflamed epiglottis. what is the etiology of the symptoms

haemophilus

28

the patient has sore throat. What is the etiology of the symptoms

answer cannot be determined

29

the patient is suffocating because of the accumulation of dead tissue and fibrin in her throat. what is the etiology of the symptoms

cornebacterium

30

which of the following is mismatched

mycobacterium - whooping cough

31

all of the following are classified as fungi except

mycobacterium

32

microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick-walled cysts. what is the etiology of the symptoms

pneumocystis

33

a patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. what is the etiology of the symptoms

bordetella

34

a patient who presents with red throat and tonsils can be diagnose as having

answer cannot be determined

35

a patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains fluid in the alveoli, and a positive tuberculin skin test. gram positive cocci are isolated from the sputum. the patient most likely has

pneumococcal pneumonia

36

which of the following is responsible for epidemics of respiratory disease in infants

respiratory syncytial virus

37

which of the following produces small "fried-egg" colonies on medium containing horse serum and yeast extract

mycoplasma

38

it is common for a normal, healthy individual to carry potentially pathogenic organisms in the upper respiratory tract

truth

39

most cases of sinusitis and otitis media will not resolve unless they are treated with antibiotics

false

40

the symptoms of diphtheria are due to an exotoxin that blocks proteins synthesis in host cells

true

41

the most common causative agent of bacterial pneumonia is streptococcus pneumoniae

true

42

a positive tuberculosis skin test indicates that the patient has active tuberculosis

false

43

vaccination with the influenza vaccine confers lifelong immunity to influenza virus

false

44

mycoplasma pneumoniae causes atypical pneumonia, also known as "walking pneumonia"

true

45

epiglottitis

pathogen: haemophilus influenzae

symptoms: inflammation of the epiglottis

treatment: antibiotics; Hib vaccines

46

streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat)

pathogen: streptococcus pyogenes

caused by group A streptococcus

produces special enzymes streptokinases and streptolysins

Enzyme immunoassay test done to detect it

symptoms: inflamed mucus membrane

treatment: penicillin

47

scarlet fever

pathogen: erythrogenic toxin-producing strains of steptococcus pyogenes

symptoms: reddening of skin and tongue and peeling of affected skin

treatment: penicillin

48

diphtheria

pathogen: corynebacterium diphtheriae

symptoms: grayish membrane forms in throat. begins with sore throat and fever, followed by malaise and swelling of the neck

treatment: penicillin and DTaP vaccine

49

otitis media

pathogen: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus

symptoms: pus in middle ear

treatment: broad spectrum antibiotics

affects 85% of children before 3

50

pneumococcal pneumonia

pathogen: S. pneumoniae

symptoms: alveoli filled with fluid

treatment: fluoroquinolones, pneumococcal vaccine

51

mycoplasmal pneumonia (walking pneumonia)

pathogen: mycoplasma pneumoniae

symptoms: mild but persistent respiratory symptoms, lower fever, cough, headache "fried egg" appearance

treatment: tetracycline

52

pertussis (whooping cough)

pathogen: Bordetella pertussis, obligate aerobe, gram negative coccobacillus.

symptoms: spasms of intense coughing to clear mucus.Produces tracheal cytotoxin, pertussis toxin

treatment: erythromycin, DTaP vaccine

53

tuberculosis

pathogen: mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M.avium-intracellulare. classified as acid-fast

symptoms: cough, blood in mucus

Diagnosis: hardening and reddening of the injection site.

treatment: anti-mycobacterial drugs, pasteurizing milk; BCG vaccine

54

histoplasmosis

pathogen: histoplasma capsulatum

symptoms: resembles TB

treatment: amphotericin B

55

Pneumocystis pneumonia

pathogen: Pneumocystis jirovecii

symptoms: pneumonia

treatment: trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, pentamidine

56

the influenza virus

two projections

Hemagglutinin spikes: agglutination of RBCs

neuraminidase spikes: stimulate formation of antibodies

57

drugs for TB

First line drugs: isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and rifampin

Second line drugs: aminoglucosides, fluoroquinolones

58

antigenic drift/ antigenic shift

antigenic drift: accumulation of mutations

antigenic shift: marks changes great enough to evade most of the immunity developed

59

catarrhal stage

resembles common cold

60

paroxysmal stage

prolonged sieges of coughing. violent cough may result in broken ribs

61

convalescence stage

may last for months. irreversible damage to the brain occurs.