bio final (exam 2) Flashcards


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1

1. The ancestor of the animal clade was probably a ________

a. ciliated protist

b. ctenophore

c. triploblastic acoelomate with spiral cleavage

d. choanoflagellate

e. none of the above

D

2

2. All animals exhibit the following structures or functions EXCEPT

a. They are heterotrophs which ingest their food

b. They lack cell walls

c. They have tissues

d. They are multicellular

e. All of the above are correct about animals

C

3

3. Cephalization is most commonly associated with

a. spherical animals

b. radial animals

c. sessile animals

d. bilateral animals

e. asymmetric animals

D

4

4. A pseudocolomate animal has a

a. fluid-filled body cavity

b. fluid-filled lined on the body wall side with endoderm and having mesoderm surrounding the guy

c. fluid-filled body cavity lined on the body wall side with mesoderm and having endoderm surrounding the gut

d. fluid-filled body cavity lined on both the body wall side and the gut with mesoderm

e. fluid-filled gastrovascular cavity

C

5

5. Protostomes are characterized by ___________ and __________ cleavage

a. radial; determinate

b. radial, indeterminate

c. spiral; determinate

d. spiral; indeterminate

e. none of the above

C

6

6. The major branches of Eumetazoa are the Radiata and the Bilateria. These names refer to what characteristic of these animals?

a. size

b. body symmetry

c. embryonic cleavage

d. types of appendages

e. presence or absence of a nucleus in their cells

B

7

7. Which group/s has/have members that undergo ecdysis?

a. flatworms

b. nematodes

c. arthropods

d. both a and c

e. both b and c

E

8

8. Which of the following correctly lists the embryonic stages in the order that they develop?

a. zygote, gastrula, blastula, larva

b. zygote, blastula, gastrula, larva

c. zygote, larva, blastula, gastrula

d. zygote, larva, gastrula, blastula

e. zygote, blastula, larva, gastrula

B

9

9. What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent?

1. tetrapods

2. vertebrates

3. deuterostomes

4. amniotes

5. bilaterians

a. 5-3-2-4-1

b. 5-3-2-1-4

c. 5-3-4-1-2

d. 3-5-4-2-1

e. 3-5-2-1-4

B

10

10. The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having

a. radial or bilateral symmetry

b. a well-defined head or no head

c. diploblastic or triploblastic embryos

d. true tissues or no tissues

e. a body cavity or no body cavity

D

11

11. What kind of data should probably have the greatest impact on animal taxonomy in the coming decades?

a. fossil evidence

b. comparative morphology of living species

c. nucleotide sequences of homologous genes

d. similarities in metabolic pathways

e. similarity in embryonic development

C

12

12. A complete digestive tract

a. has a single opening-mouth/anus

b. produces acids and contains enzymes

c. is surrounded by muscle

d. is a one-way tube with a mouth and an anus

e. if found in non parasitic platyhelminthes

D

13

13. Which of the following is a characteristic of cnidarians?

a. They are diploblastic

b. They show cephalization

c. They have bilateral symmetry

d. they use gills for breathing

e. none of the above

A

14

14. An animal with bilateral symmetry, a pseudocoelom, a tubular digestive system, and thick, multilayer cuticle is most likely a(n)

a. arrow worm

b. nematode

c. flatworm

d. mollusk

e. annelid

B

15

15. While vacationing in a country that lacks adequate meat inspection, a student ate undercooked ground beef. Sometime later the student became easily fatigued, and lost body weight. At about the same time, whitish, flattened, rectangular objects full of small white spheres started appearing in his feces. The student had probably been infected by a

a. earthworm

b. clamworm

c. nematode

d. tapeworm

e. ringworm

D

16

16. All of the following are structures or characteristics of members of the Class Bivalvia of the Phylum Mollusca EXCEPT

a. mantle

b. foot

c. radula

d. visceral mass

e. all of the above are found in bivalves

C

17

17. All of the following characterize the phylum Rotifera EXCEPT

a. a sac-like digestive system

b. a crown of cilia at the anterior end that resembles a wheel

c. parthenogenic reproduction

d. a relatively small size

e. all of the above are found in rotifers

A

18

18. Sponges have only which one of the following?

a. symmetry

b. tissues and organs

c. coelom

d. skeleton

e. water vascular system

D

19

19. Which of the following is true about earthworms?

a. They have a true coelom

b. They have segmentation

c. They have a closed circulatory system

d. a and b are true

e. all of the above are true

E

20

20. The passage of an arthropod through stages from egg to adult is known as

a. differentiation

b. evolution

c. graduation

d. metamorphosis

e. succession

D

21

21. Which of the following is mismatched?

a. cnidarians; nematocysts

b. sponges; spicules

c. tapeworms; scolex and proglottids

d. spiders; chelicerae

e. clamworm; pedipalps

E

22

22. A biologist has been studying a mollusk that does not have a shell, exhibits well-developed sense organs, a complex brain, and is an extremely fast and active predator with beak-like jaws. It lives in the marine environment. Of the example given below, which one did the biologist study?

a. clam

b. snail

c. garden slug

d. chiton

e. octopus

E

23

23. Many cnidarians go through both a motile and sessile stage during their life cycle. The sessile stage is called a(n)________

a. embryo

b. medusa

c. larvae

d. polyp

e. mesoglea

D

24

24. Some animals are oviparous, which means that ________

a. the young develop within the female's body

b. they have a tendency toward multiple births

c. they maintain a constant body temperature

d. they lay eggs which hatch outside the mother's body

e. they have a tendency toward single births

D

25

25. Which of the following is FALSE regarding birds?

a. The Archaeopteryx remains the oldest bird known

b. They contain a muscular gizzard to grind their food and a complete digestive system

c. They are ectothermic

d. They have efficient respiratory and circulatory systems with a four-chambered heart which keep tissues well supplied with oxygen and nutrients

e. all of the above are true regarding birds

C

26

26. Which of the following is/are true regarding tunicates:

a. They have pharyngeal gills which they use in suspension feeding

b. They belong to the subphylum urochordata

c. They retain all of the chordate features as adults

d. A and B are true

e. All of the above are true

D

27

27. Exchange of respiratory gases through the skin is a characteristic of

a. fishes

b. amphibians

c. reptiles

d. mammals

e. none of the above

B

28

28. The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes

a. was probably derived from the liver of chondrichthyans

b. developed into lungs in saltwater fished

c. first appeared in sharks

d. provides for regulation of buoyancy

e. is involved in storing urine

D

29

29. Monotremes

a. cannot feed their young with milk

b. are egg laying mammals

c. are hairless

d. both a and b

e. a, b, and c

B

30

30. Which of the following is NOT a subphylum of Chordata?

a. urochordata

b. hemichordata

c. cephalochordata

d. vertebrata

e. all of the above are subphyla in chordata

B

31

31. Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of

a. amphibians

b. nonbird reptiles

c. chondrichthyans

d. mammals

e. birds

B

32

32. Which of the following groups has a water vascular system?

a. mollusks

b. chordates

c. annelids

d. echinoderms

e. hemichordates

D

33

33. ________ arose very early in hominid evolution; _______ evolved more recently

a. large brains....prominent brow ridges

b. upright posture....large brains

c. large brains....upright posture

d. symbolic and sophisticated thought....tool fashioning and use

e. symbolic and sophisticated thought....upright posture

B

34

34. Evolution of jaws first occurred in the group of animals known as the

a. ostracoderms

b. gnathostomes

c. bony fishes

d. coelacanths

e. tunicates

B

35

35. Sharks, skates and rays

a. lack cephalization

b. breathe using lungs

c. have bony scales

d. have skeletons consisting primarily of cartilage

e. have amniotic eggs

D

36

36. Tissue whose cells are striated and fused at the ends by intercalated disks so that the cells contract as a unit is __________ muscle

a. smooth

b. skeletal

c. visceral

d. cardiac

e. none of these

D

37

37. The type of epithelial cell found in the lining of the stomach, intestinal tract, and part of the respiratory tract is

a. simple cuboidal

c. simple squamous

c. simple columnar

d. stratified

e. stratified cuboidal

C

38

38. Which of the following is an example of positive feedback?

a. An increase in blood sugar concentration causes the production of a hormone that leads to the conversion of glucose into glycogen

b. A decrease in blood sugar concentration causes the production of a hormone that leads to the conversion of glycogen into glucose

c. When the skin is cut, platelets move to and accumulate at the site of injury, and release substances which help to attract more platelets to the site of injury, the latter in turn will release more substances which help to recruit even more platelets

d. b and c

e. a and c

C

39

39. Which of the following mechanisms conserve/s heat

a. countercurrent exchange between vessels that service the extremities

b. trapping air by raising fur or feathers

c. vasodilation of surface vessels

d. a and b only

e. all of the above conserve heat

D

40

40. What is the name of the cell capable of nerve impulse generation and transmission?

a. nephrons

b. neuroglial cells

c. neurons

d. muscle cells

e. either a or b

C

41

41. Imagine that you are a biologist who is attempting to get an accurate measure of an animal's basal metabolic rate. The best time to measure the metabolic rate is when the animal

a. is resting and had just completed its first meal of the day

b. is resting and had not eaten its first meal of the day

c. has recently eaten a sugar-free meal

d. has not consumed any water for at least 48 hours

e. has just completed 30 minutes of vigorous exercise

B

42

42. Which tissue has little extracellular matrix, acts as an insulator, and is used to store chemical energy?

a. smooth muscle

b. blood

c. cartilage

d. fibrous connective tissue

e. adipose tissue

E

43

43. Which of the following is NOT one of the thermoregulatory responses of a lizard?

a. orientating its body to the sun to maximize exposure to solar radiation

b. increasing metabolic heat production

c. increasing physical contact between a warm rock and its relatively cool body

d. positioning itself on a rock to avoid cold air currents

e. all of the above are thermoregulatory responses of a lizard

B

44

44. You observe a tissue with one free surface with several layers of cells attached to a basal lamina. This is an example of

a. connective tissue

b. epithelial tissue

c. muscle tissue

d. nervous tissue

e. connective and muscle tissue

B

45

45. An examination of the processes of muscle contraction in fishes in an exampe of

a. an ecological stufy

b. a taxonomic study

c. an anatomical study

d. a physiological study

e. a botanical study

D

46

46. Digestion of lipids occurs in the

a. mouth

b. stomach

c. duodenum

d. pancreas

e. both c and d

C

47

47. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the large intestine?

a. it contains villi

b. it is wider in diameter than the small intestine

c. it is involved in water reabsorption and storage of feces

d. it houses bacteria that produce vitamins such as E coli and produced vitamin K

e. all of the above are true regarding the large intestine

A

48

48. The triglicerides are combines with ___________ in the small intestine to make them into water soluble particles which are called __________

a. proteins, chyme

b. proteins, chylomicrons

c. sugars, chyme

d. sugars, chylomicrons

e. nucleotides, chyme

B

49

49. Adipose cells secrete _______, a(n) _______ that acts on the ______ to help contro appetite

a. ghrelin; enzyme; stomach

b. leptin; enzyme; brain

c. leptin; hormone; brain

d. ghrelin; hormone; stomach

e. ghrelin; hormone; brain

C

50

50. The ___________ secretes digestive enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, and bicarbonate into the duodenum to aid in digestion

a. liver

b. gallbladder

c. spleen

d. pancreas

e. stomach

D

51

51. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of the gastrointestinal tract?

a. mouth

b. larynx

c. esophagus

d. stomach

e. all of the above are part of the gastrointestinal tract

B

52

52. Immediately after a meal, the concentration of glucose in the blood tends to increase due specifically to what digestive system task?

a. mechanical processing

b. secretion

c. digestion

d. absorption

e. elimination

D

53

53. If one examined the various layers of the gastrointestinal tract of a vertebrate, they would encounter (going from outside the tract to inside of the tract)

a. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa

b. serosa, submucosa, muscularis, and mucosa

c. serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa

d. mucosa, submucosa, serosa, and muscularis

e. serosa, mucosa submucosa and muscularis

C

54

54. The softened ball of food (bolus) formed in the mouth contains all of the following EXCEPT

a. water

b. amylase enzyme

c. mucins

d. lipase

e. undigested food

D