PSY 235 test 2 Flashcards
Gross motor skills are defined by: ______.
A) head motions.
B) fine, or small, movements.
C) large movements.
D) feet motions.
Fine motor skills are those that: _____
A) are due to brain damage or trauma.
B) require practice.
C) require small body movements.
D) use three or more muscles.
3. Research has found that "baby talk" is: ______.
A) confined to females; males do not use it.
B) characterized by a high pitch, simple vocabulary, and short sentences.
C) unique to English-speaking parents.
D) characterized by a lower pitch and use of nonsense words.
4. The term holophrase is used to denote:
A) a word that is empty of meaning.
B) the infant's use of one word to express a whole thought.
C) the relationship of object permanence to language development.
D) the use of two words to take the place of one.
5. According to Chomsky's theory of language acquisition:
A) children learn language through a complex process of imitation and reinforcement.
B) children have an inborn ability to learn language.
C) the inability to learn language is due to specific brain dysfunctions.
D) language learning depends on specific structure in the brain.
Which of the following is characteristic of the emotions that develop over the course of the first 2 years of life?
A) They remain purely reflexive.
B) They remain cautious and anticipatory.
C) They are spontaneous and uncensored.
D) They adapt and change according to cognitive maps.
7. Which of the following develops at around 6 weeks of age?
B) laughter and spontaneity
C) fear of unexpected sights and sounds
D) the social smile
8. The emotion of anger usually appears by the age of: _____.
B) 2 months.
C) 6 months.
D) 1 year.
9. The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first:
A) develop long-term memory skills.
B) develop language to express those emotions.
C) gain awareness of other people.
D) have experienced punishment.
10. In Eriksonts theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:
A) obtaining oral gratification.
B) controlling bodily functions.
C) learning pain and pleasure.
D.) learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs.
Erikson's second stage of development is called:
A) attachment vs. self-awareness.
B) pride vs. shame.
C) synchrony vs. attachment.
D) autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
12. The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child's:
A) exhibiting self-control.
B) trying to control his or her own actions.
C) developing a sense of self.
D) getting along with other children.
13. Social learning is:
A) learning via observing others.
B) learning via observing yourself.
C) learning by reading a book.
D) learning via the internet.
14. Distal parenting tends to produce children who are:
15. Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
16. A sign of secure attachment is:
A) refusing to let go of the caregiver's arm.
B) playing aimlessly with no contact with the caregiver.
C) fear and anger.
D) attempts to be close to the caregiver.
17. In the United States, what percentage of children are cared for by someone else, in addition to the mother?
A) 50 percent
B) 60 percent
C) 70 percent
D) 80 percent
18. Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about _____ pounds and grow about _____ inches per year.
C) 4 1/2;3
D) 5 1/2; 4 1/2
19. The most common disease of young children in developed nations is:
D) early tooth decay.
20. Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
A) mastery of only fine motor skills
B) mastery of only gross motor skills
C) mastery of gross and fine motor skills
D) mastery of coordination
21. Gross motor skills such as riding a tricycle are acquired:
A) solely through many opportunities for practice.
B) automatically when brain maturation occurs.
C) through a combination of brain maturation and practice.
D) only if the parents are well coordinated.
22. A good example of a fine motor skill is:
A) using scissors to cut paper.
B) swimming across a pool.
C) roller-skating around the block.
D) playing catch with a football.
A) connects the two halves of the brain.
B) compensates for loss of brain function due to injury.
C) promotes regular childhood sleep patterns.
D) speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
24. The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:
B) the corpus callosum.
C) the prefrontal cortex.
D) the axon cord.
25. The specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called:
26. The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from his personal perspective is:
A) static reasoning.
27. Irreversibility refers to the preoperational child's tendency to:
A) focus on something other than appearances
B) use deductive reasoning to solve a problem.
C) be unable to think backwards from a conclusion to the beginning.
D) engage in centration when another solution is needed.
28. Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:
A) young children as "apprentices in thinking."
B) discovery learning.
C) prescribed curriculum.
D) observation but not participation in children's learning.
29. According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
A) interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.
B) is told instructions for a task only once.
C) is allowed to discover the solution to a task on his or her own.
D) be assisted by an adult until the child can perform the task well on his own.
30. According to Vygotsky, language is a tool:
A) to make oneself understood.
B) to regulate behavior. to advance thought.
D) of self-expression.
31. At the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of
_____words and a vocabulary of _____words at age 6.
A) 50; 100
B) 100; 100,000
C) 500; 1,000
D) 500; 10,000
32. "I catched two mices in a trap" is an example of:
A) egocentric speech.
C) literal translation.
D) the past imperfect.
33. In which of the following areas will deficits be most apparent in a child who is maltreated?
A) physical abilities
B) academic abilities
C) verbal skills
D) social skills
34. Eriksonts stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called:
A) initiative versus guilt.
B) phallic pride versus penis envy.
C) the preoperational stage.
D) autonomy versus inferiority.
35. Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes which of the following?
A) extrinsic motivations
B) intrinsic motivations
C) internalizing problems
D) externalizing problems
36. Children usually prefer to play with:
A) their peers.
B) their parents.
C) children who are older than they are.
D) their older siblings.
37. Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but is not intended to harm is called:
A) bullying play.
B) sociodramatic play.
C) parallel play.
D) rough-and-tumble play.
38. Authoritarian parents:
A) are affectionate with their children and often praise them.
B) allow children to question their decisions but punish misconduct.
C) seem aloof from their children.
D) make few maturity demands on their children.
39. Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the:
A) autocratic pattern of parenting.
B) authoritarian pattern of parenting.
C) authoritative pattern of parenting.
D) democratic pattern of parenting.
40. Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are:
41. The child most likely to have permissive parents is:
A) Richard, who is obedient but not very happy.
B) George, who is happy and successful.
C) Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
D) Peter, who is generous, but a drug user.
42. Identify the prosocial behavior:
A) Savannah takes out the garbage for a quarter.
B) Selena helps her mother so that her mother will take her to the park.
C) Jana says "please" when asking her mother for the car keys.
D) Beth feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick.
An example of antisocial behavior is:
A) Jamie tries to share his toys with Jill.
B) Mark intentionally knocks over Simonts blocks.
C) Holly watches while other children are playing jump rope.
D) Courtney helps her mom rake the leaves.
44. Which of the following is an example of reactive agyession?
A) Ralph spanks his daughter when he gets mad.
B) Joanie hits Beth because Beth bumped into her during a game of catch.
C) Arthur wrestles Richie for fun.
D) Marion punches Arnold for no apparent reason.
45. According to your text, _____ differences are biological and ______ differences are culturally prescribed.
A) gender; sex
B) sex; gender
C) sibling; parental
D) parental; sibling
46. Jared, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing:
47. The four dimensions of a parenting style are wannth, discipline, communication, and:
A) physical contact.
B) expectations for maturity.
48. Authoritarian parents often:
A) offer their children a lot of praise.
B) allow children to question their decisions.
C) seem stern to their children.
D) make few maturity demands on their children.
49. Three girls spread a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a
bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. This is an example of ____
50. Psychological control as a means of discipline relies on a child's:
A) sense of belonging to the family unit.
B) sense of pride in himself or herself.
C) feelings of shame, guilt, and gratitude.
D) sense of fear toward the parents.