PSY 235 test 1 Flashcards


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Test 1
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1

What does the science of human development seek to understand?

A) the meaning of life

B) theories that have not been subjected to scientific testing

C) the works of Freud, Piaget, and Erikson

D) how and why people change over time

D

2

A researcher designed and conducted an experiment to learn if 350 mg of a certain drug would help patients with bipolar disorder. By designing and conducting this experiment the researcher was able to ___.

A) draw conclusions

B) demonstrate proof

C) test the hypothesis

D) confirm the results

C

3

Dr. Amrit predicts that a certain drug will help patients with schizophrenia. Her prediction is call ___ ?

A) a conclusion

B) empirical evidence

C) a hypothesis

D) a result

C

4

A hypothesis is a(n) ____.

A) experiment

B) prediction that can be tested

C) conclusion drawn from research

D) replication of a scientific study

B

5

What is replication of a study?

A) the repetition of a study using different participants

B) the repetition of a study using the same participants

C) a new study based on information from a previous study

D) designing a new study using new ideas and information

A

6

Parents who believe in the importance of ___ as it relates to development are likely to spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children.

A) nurture

B) replication

C) nature

D) classical conditioning

A

7

Nature refers to ___ in development.

A) the genes people inherit

B) environmental influences

C) patterns of development

D) developmental differences

A

8

8. What is epigenetics?

A) the study of defective human genes

B) the study of how the environment affects which genes are expressed

C) a theory that states that nature matters more than nurture

D) a theory that explains how motivation can change one's biology

B

9

9. Which term is NOT associated with Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems approach?

A) humanism
B) microsystems
C) exosystems
D) macrosystems

A

10

10. In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems model, a school in the community is an example of which system?

A) the ecosystem

B) the microsystem

C) the education system

D) the exosystem

D

11

Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's ______.

A) culture

B) ethnicity

C) social class

D) race

C

12

12. Jameel has a college degree, lives in a nice neighborhood, and earns more than $50,000 a year. This information defines his _____.

A) economic potential

B) socioeconomic status

C) cohort

D) microsystem

B

13

13. A system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations is the definition of ______.

A) a cohort

B) culture

C) nature

D) nurture

B

14

12. Plasticity refers to the ______.

A) fact that many academic fields contribute data to the science of development

B) universals and specifics of human development in many cultural settings

C) vast array of contexts in which development occurs

D) potential for human traits to be molded during development but also to remain durable

D

15

15. Psychoanalytic theory originated with _____

A) Jean Piaget
B) Sigmund Freud
C) John B. Watson
D) Erik Erikson

B

16

16. Johnny is 12 years old and has been aggressive toward his siblings and peers, hitting, kicking, and calling them names. Johnny's parents are worried about these new aggressive behaviors and consult with a psychologist. After some meetings, they suggest that this behavior could be the result of unconscious drives originating from conflicts during early development. This explanation for the aggression is consistent with _____.

A) psychoanalytic theory
B) cognitive theory
C) behaviorism
D) information-processing theory

A

17

17. Behaviorists believe that psychologists should focus on ______.

A) observable behaviors
B) inner drives and motives
C) a personts ideas and beliefs
D) a personts sexual conflict

A

18

18. According to Piaget, interpreting new experiences to fit into old ideas is called ____.

A) learning

B) assimilation

C) equilibrium

D) accommodation

B

19

19. With respect to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the more difficult cognitive adaptation is ______.

A) assimilation

B) accommodation

C) assimilation during childhood and accommodation during adulthood

D) accommodation during childhood and assimilation during adulthood

B

20

20. According to Abraham Maslow, all people ______.

A) have the same basic needs or motivations
B) are driven by inner drives and motives
C) learn from the environment
D) learn from observing others

A

21

21. According to evolutionary theory, people ______.

A) have the same basic needs or motivations
B) are driven to survive and reproduce
C) learn from the environment
D) learn from observations

B

22

22. Experiments allow researchers to _____.

A) study the natural environment
B) study the complexity of an individual
C) use the scientific method in a cost-effective way
D) determine a cause-and-effect relationship

D

23

What is an independent variable?

A) It is the measured variable that may change depending on manipulation of an independent variable.

B) It is any unmeasured variable that is uncontrolled within the context of the experiment.

C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

D) It is an extemal variable that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

C

24

24. What is a dependent variable?

A) It is the measured variable that may change depending on manipulation of an independent variable.

B) It is any unmeasured variable that is uncontrolled within the context of the experiment.

C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

D) It is an external variable that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

A

25

25. IRB stands for?

A) Institutional Review Board
B) International Research Board
C) Internal Review Board
D) Intelligence Research Board

A

26

26. The single cell formed from the union of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum, is called a ____.

A) chromosome

B) phenotype

C) genotype

D) zygote

D

27

27. All living things are composed of cells. The work of cells is done by _____.

A) proteins
B) zygotes
C) genotypes
D) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A

28

28. Each human body cell contains _____.

A) 46 pairs of chromosomes
B) 46 chromosomes
C) 23 chromosomes
D) 20 pairs of chromosomes

B

29

29. An individual's genetic inheritance is called a(n) _____.

A) phenotype

B) allele

C) genotype

D) gamete

C

30

30. The ______ is the person's appearance, behavior, and brain and body functions.

(A) phenotype
B) allele
C) genotype
D) gamete

A

31

31. An individual's phenotype is dependent on _____.

A) an individual's genes

B) the environment

C) an individual's genes and the environment

D) an individual's genes during prenatal development and the environment postnatally

C

32

32. On the 23rd pair of chromosomes, males have ____

A) two X chromosomes

B) two Y chromosomes

C) an X and a Y chromosome

D) just a Y chromosome

C

33

33. Brian and Diana are having a baby and are hoping for a boy. Who is responsible for determining the sex of the baby?

A) Diana

B) Brian

C) both of them

D) neither of them

B

34

34. Identical twins are also called _____ twins.

A) monozygotic

B) dizygotic

C) zygotic

D) gamete

A

35

35. Juan and Joaquin are identical twins. They are the result of _____.

A) one ovum fertilized by one sperm that split into two zygotes

B) two separate ova that were fertilized by two different sperms

C) one ovum that was fertilized by two sperms

D) two ova that were fertilized by one sperm

A

36

36. Fraternal twins are also called _____ twins.

A) monozygotic
B) dizygotic
C) zygotic
D) gamete

B

37

37. Elyse and Ellen are fraternal twins. They are the result of ______.

A) one ovum fertilized by one sperm that split into two zygotes

B) two separate ova that were fertilized by two different sperm

C) one ovum that was fertilized by two sperms

D) two ova that were fertilized by one sperm

B

38

38. Almost every trait is ______ , which means it is affected by many genes.

A) polygenic
B) nonadditive
C) X-Iinked
D) monozygotic

A

39

39. Epigenetics means that a trait _____.

A) is determined by genes alone
B) is determine by the environment alone
C) is detemined by genes and the environment
D) is determined by genes more than the environment

A

40

40. Oliver has inherited genes that put him at risk for developing diabetes, but because of his healthy diet and exercise he is not diabetic. This example demonstrates that human characteristics, including diabetes, are _____.

A) polygenic

B) nonadditive

C) multifactorial

D) epigenetic

D

41

Within hours after conception, the 23 pairs of chromosomes within the zygote _____, forming two complete sets of the genome.

A) divide

B) duplicate

C) differentiate

D) detach

B

42

42. The germinal period ends approximately _______ after conception.

A) 2 days

B) 3 months

C) 2 weeks

D) 12 weeks

C

43

43. As part of embryonic development, the neural tube will become the _____.

A) reproductive organs

B) intestinal tract

C) backbone, legs, and arms

D) central nervous system, including the brain and spine

D

44

44. In the fourth week after conception, a minuscule blood vessel that will become the ______ begins to pulsate.

A) lungs

B) stomach

C) kidneys

D) heart

D

45

45. The third period of gestation is the _____ period.

A) zygotic

B) embryonic

C) germinal

D) fetal

D

46

46. At around 38 weeks after conception, the ____ starts the sequence of events that prepares the fetus for delivery and starts labor.

A) fetal brain
B) maternal brain
C) placenta
D) germinal period

A

47

47. The Apgar scale is used at one minute and five minutes after birth to ____.

A) evaluate the newborn's sensory abilities

B) evaluate the health of the new mother

C) help the mother recover from childbirth

D) evaluate the health of the newborn

D

48

48. A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, is referred to as a(n) ______.

A) epidural

B) cesarean section

C) induced labor

D) doula

B

49

During prenatal development, teratogens ______.

A) increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities

B) decrease the risk of prenatal abnormalities

C) always cause prenatal abnormalities

D) do not cause prenatal abnormalities

A

50

50. Some teratogens have a threshold effect, which means that they are ______.

A) harmful no matter what the level of exposure

B) rarely harmful

C) harmless until exposure reaches a certain level

D) always hannless

C