Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Flashcards


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Chapter 26
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anatomy & physiology 2
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1

1) The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
A) calcium ions
B) potassium ions
C) hydrogen ions
D) sodium ions

Sodium Ions

2

2) The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.
A) the feeling one might have after a long swim
B) the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor
C) a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
D) a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

3

3) Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.
A) tissue edema
B) extreme weight loss
C) extreme weight gain
D) nerve damage

Tissue Edema

4

4) Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
A) antidiuretic hormone
B) erythropoietin
C) aldosterone
D) renin

Aldosterone

5

5) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
A) enhance atrial contractions
B) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism
C) prevent pH changes caused by organic acids
D) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

6

6) Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.
A) a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids
B) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
C) a runner has completed a very long marathon
D) the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions

A person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

7

7) Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
A) the lungs and the kidneys
B) the adrenal glands and the testes
C) the thyroid gland and the heart
D) the stomach and the liver

The lungs and kidneys

8

8) Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
A) neuromuscular activity
B) membrane permeability
C) secretory activity
D) anabolism of proteins

Anabolism of proteins

9

9) Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
A) ADH
B) aldosterone
C) water levels
D) glucocorticoids

Aldosterone

10

10) The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ________.
A) plasma
B) intracellular fluid
C) interstitial fluid
D) cerebrospinal fluid

Plasma

11

11) Newborn infants have a relatively higher ________ content in their ECF than do adults.
A) iron
B) sodium
C) magnesium
D) bicarbonate

Sodium

12

12) Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
A) iron
B) chloride
C) potassium
D) magnesium

Potassium

13

13) Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?
A) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
B) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids
C) equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids
D) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

14

14) Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.
A) inefficient kidneys
B) comparatively low metabolic rates
C) low rate of insensible water loss
D) low daily rate of fluid exchange

Inefficient kidneys

15

15) The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.
A) the potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells
B) the pH of the ICF
C) intracellular sodium levels
D) potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

16

16) The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.
A) phosphate
B) hemoglobin
C) bicarbonate
D) protein

Bicarbonate

17

17) A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.
A) respiratory acidosis
B) respiratory alkalosis
C) metabolic acidosis
D) metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory acidosis

18

18) The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.
A) requires active transport
B) is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
C) requires ATP for the transport to take place
D) involves filtration

is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

19

19) What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
A) ADH
B) aldosterone
C) atrial natriuretic peptide
D) thyroxine

Atrial natriuretic peptide

20

20) Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
A) chemical buffer systems
B) diet
C) respiratory changes
D) renal mechanism

Diet

21

21) Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
A) bicarbonate
B) phosphate
C) nucleic acid
D) protein

Nucleic Acid

22

22) Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except ________.
A) lymph and interstitial fluid
B) blood plasma
C) cerebrospinal fluid
D) glucose

Glucose

23

23) Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
A) Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
B) Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body.
C) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
D) There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.

Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.

24

24) Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
A) aldosterone
B) thymosin
C) antidiuretic hormone
D) atrial natriuretic peptide

Antidiuretic hormone

25

25) The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.
A) the control of respiratory ventilation
B) the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach
C) the active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells
D) control of the acids produced in the stomach

The control of respiratory ventilation

26

26) Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
A) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
B) hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high
C) edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
D) excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins

Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

27

27) The regulation of sodium ________.
A) is due to specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus
B) is linked to blood pressure
C) involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys
D) involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration

Is linked to blood pressure

28

28) Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance.
A) The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid.
B) Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate.
C) Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion.
D) The kidneys are the most important mechanism for eliminating all bicarbonate ions.

Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion

29

29) Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
A) respiratory acidosis
B) metabolic acidosis
C) metabolic alkalosis
D) respiratory alkalosis

Metabolic acidosis

30

30) A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
A) respiratory acidosis
B) metabolic acidosis
C) metabolic alkalosis
D) respiratory alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis

31

31) One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________.
A) a dry mouth from high temperatures
B) becoming overly agitated
C) drinking caffeinated beverages
D) a rise in plasma osmolality

A rise in plasma osmolality

32

32) Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
A) It will increase the osmolality of the blood.
B) There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.
C) She will experience hypotension.
D) There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale.

There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

33

33) The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ________.
A) osmotic pressure of plasma proteins
B) hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
C) hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid
D) intracellular hydrostatic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

34

34) Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
A) membrane polarity
B) neuromuscular excitability
C) maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF
D) amount of body fat

Amount of body fat

35

35) The regulation of potassium balance ________.
A) is not linked to sodium balance
B) includes renal secretion, but never absorption
C) is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms
D) involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium

Involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium