ABPSY - CH. 14: late life and neurocognitive disorders

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1

Ageism refers to

  1. a) the physical deterioration that accompanies old age.
  2. b) the intellectual deterioration that frequently occurs as a person ages.
  3. c) the diversity present among older adults.
  4. d) prejudice against a person based on their age.

d. prejudice against a person based on their age

2

The age at which one is considered 'old,' which is now 65, is based upon

  1. a) clear biological changes that begin at about that age.
  2. b) social policy.
  3. c) the age at which individuals begin to refer to themselves as old.
  4. d) a scientific standard.

b. social policy

3

Which of the following age ranges fits the label “old-old”?

  1. a) 65-74
  2. b) 75-84
  3. c) 85-94
  4. d) 95+

b. 75-84

4

Generally older adults

  1. a) are lonely.
  2. b) are unhappy.
  3. c) complain about minor physical symptoms.
  4. d) have mild cognitive losses.

d. have mild cognitive losses

5

People spend billions of dollars per year on cosmetics and __________ to reduce signs of aging.

  1. a) plastic surgery
  2. b) medication
  3. c) hypnosis
  4. d) perfumes

a. plastic surgery

6

Approximately ________ percent of practicing psychologists conduct clinical work with older adults.

  1. a) 20
  2. b) 40
  3. c) 50
  4. d) 70

d. 70

7

Compared with young people, people over the age of 60 tend to

  1. a) experience more negative emotion.
  2. b) experience less negative emotion.
  3. c) experience more physiological reactivity in response to emotionally charged topics.
  4. d) report more somatic symptoms.

b. experience less negative emotion

8

Older people are actually likely to underreport __________, perhaps because of beliefs that these are inevitable parts of life.

  1. a) sore muscles
  2. b) somatic symptoms
  3. c) dizziness
  4. d) absent-mindedness

b. somatic symptoms

9

Social selectivity refers to

  1. a) cultivating only one's most important social relationships.
  2. b) restricting one's social interactions only to family members.
  3. c) seeking out new social interactions.
  4. d) seeking out solitary social activities.

a. cultivating only one's most important social relationships

10

Which of the following medical problems is a particular problem for older adults?

  1. a) kidney disease
  2. b) lung cancer
  3. c) high blood pressure
  4. d) insomnia

d. insomnia

11

Which of the following statements is an example of a time-of-measurement effect?

  1. a) Today's older adults are less likely to seek mental health services because when they were growing up, mental illness was stigmatized.
  2. b) Because exercise has become widely promoted in the media, many older adults are now exercising and thus are healthier than predicted by earlier measures of their physical well-being.
  3. c) Because of the effects of aging on the brain, older adults do worse than younger adults on measures of "fluid" intelligence.
  4. d) In a longitudinal study, many of the elderly subjects died before the follow-up data was collected.

b. Because exercise has become widely promoted in the media, many older adults are now exercising and thus are healthier than predicted by earlier measures of their physical well-being.

12

Deterioration of cognitive abilities among the elderly, to the point that social and occupational functions are impaired, is called

  1. a) absent-mindedness.
  2. b) dementia.
  3. c) age-related forgetting.
  4. d) none of the above.

b. dementia

13

The course of dementia may be all of the following EXCEPT

  1. a) progressive.
  2. b) static.
  3. c) remitting.
  4. d) affective.

d. affective

14

The most prominent symptom of dementia is

  1. a) difficulty remembering things.
  2. b) disorientation.
  3. c) aggressive behavior.
  4. d) depression.

a. difficulty remembering things

15

A state of great mental confusion is called

  1. a) deterioration.
  2. b) delirium.
  3. c) deregulation.
  4. d) all of the above.

b. delirium

16

A group of people age 40 is compared to a group age 70. This type of research is called

  1. a) longitudinal.
  2. b) time-of-measurement.
  3. c) cross-sectional.
  4. d) cohort effect.

c. cross sectional

17

As the hippies of the 1960s reach old age, research may find increased drug abuse among older adults. This increase would be a(n)

  1. a) age effect.
  2. b) cohort effect.
  3. c) longitudinal effect.
  4. d) time-of-measurement effect.

b. cohort effect

18

In cross-sectional research on aging,

  1. a) two age groups are compared at one point in time.
  2. b) people with different mental disorders are compared at one point in time.
  3. c) the same group of people is followed over time.
  4. d) people from different cultures are compared at one point in time.

a. two age groups are compared at one point in time

19

Longitudinal studies involve

  1. a) testing several different age groups on two or more measures.
  2. b) testing age effects vs. cohort effects in a population.
  3. c) testing one cohort over time.
  4. d) testing the effects of time-of-measurement.

c. testing one cohort over time

20

Which of the following statements is an example of selective mortality?

  1. a) Today's older adults are less likely to seek mental health services because when they were growing up, mental illness was stigmatized.
  2. b) Because exercise has become widely promoted in the media, many older adults are now exercising and thus healthier than predicted by earlier measures of their physical well-being.
  3. c) Because of the effects of aging on the brain, older adults do worse than younger adults on measures of "fluid" intelligence.
  4. d) In a longitudinal study, many of the elderly subjects died before the follow-up data was collected.

d. In a longitudinal study, many of the elderly subjects died before the follow-up data was collected.

21

As many as __________ percent of elderly people have at least one major medical condition.

  1. a) 40
  2. b) 50
  3. c) 70
  4. d) 80

d. 80

22

The prescribing of multiple drugs to a person is called

  1. a) drugging.
  2. b) polypharmacy.
  3. c) over dosage.
  4. d) all of the above.

b. polypharmacy

23

Psychoactive drugs can be dangerous when used with the elderly because

  1. a) they are not tested on the elderly, only on young people.
  2. b) side effects are more common.
  3. c) toxicity is more of a problem.
  4. d) all of the above.

d. all of the above

24

The consequences of being a certain chronological age are called

  1. a) age effects.
  2. b) cohort effects.
  3. c) time-of-measurement effects.
  4. d) none of these answers are correct.

a. age effects

25

The consequences of growing up during a particular time period with its unique challenges and opportunities are called

  1. a) age effects.
  2. b) cohort effects.
  3. c) time-of-measurement effects.
  4. d) none of these answers are correct.

b. cohort effects

26

Impairment in which of the following areas is the most prominent symptom of dementia?

  1. a) memory
  2. b) abstract thinking
  3. c) judgment
  4. d) language

a. memory

27

What is an early sign of Alzheimer's disease?

  1. a) loss of sensation or motor control on one side of the body
  2. b) difficulty comprehending speech
  3. c) difficulty remembering new material
  4. d) clouded states of consciousness

c. difficulty remembering new material

28

Alzheimer's disease is the result of

  1. a) age-based slowing of all bodily processes.
  2. b) low social and intellectual stimulation.
  3. c) tangled abnormal protein filaments called neurofibrillary tangles.
  4. d) side-effects of long-term medication, such as anti-Parkinson's medication.

c. tangled abnormal protein filaments called neurofibrillary tangles

29

In what brain areas are abnormalities found in Alzheimer's patients?

  1. a) frontal cortex
  2. b) sensory cortical areas
  3. c) hippocampus
  4. d) both a and c

d. both a and c

30

Alzheimer's disease is partly characterized by

  1. a) plaques between neurons.
  2. b) pick bodies within neurons.
  3. c) cerebellum deterioration.
  4. d) swelling in the cortex

a. plaques between neurons

31

Plaques, which develop as part of Alzheimer's disease, are

  1. a) protein deposits that are outside neurons.
  2. b) cholesterol remains from poor diet.
  3. c) composed of serotonin and fatty deposits.
  4. d) equivalent to neurofibrillary tangles.

a. protein deposits that are outside of neurons

32

Which of the following has been shown to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease?

  1. a) head injury
  2. b) immune system functioning
  3. c) an abnormality on chromosome 19
  4. d) all of the above

c. abnormality on chromosome 19

33

Which of the following may serve as a protective factor against Alzheimer's disease?

  1. a) low fat diet
  2. b) strong baseline mental abilities and continued engagement in cognitive activities
  3. c) an active lifestyle involving daily exercise and social interaction
  4. d) high spatial relations skills

b. strong baseline mental abilities and continued engagement in cognitive activities

34

Frontal-temporal dementias (FTD) are characterized by

  1. a) early onset Alzheimer's disease.
  2. b) primarily Acetylcholine disturbance.
  3. c) problems with executive function such as planning and problem solving.
  4. d) Huntington's chorea.

c. problems with executive function such as planning and problem solving

35

Dementia with Lewy bodies can be divided into the following subtypes:

  1. a) occurring with Alzheimer’s or occurring without Alzheimer’s
  2. b) occurring with Alzheimer’s or occurring with Parkinson’s
  3. c) occurring with Parkinson’s and occurring without Parkinson’s
  4. d) none of the above

c. occuring with Parkinson's and and without Parkinson's

36

The symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies are similar to those of

  1. a) Parkinson's.
  2. b) Alzheimer's.
  3. c) Huntington's chorea.
  4. d) Both a and b.

d. both a and b

37

Which of the following diseases can produce dementia?

  1. a) meningitis
  2. b) encephalitis
  3. c) HIV
  4. d) all of the above

d. all of the above

38

Standard treatment for Alzheimer's disease includes

  1. a) behavior therapy to maintain cognitive skills.
  2. b) helping the victim recognize deterioration and make plans.
  3. c) drugs to reduce toxic neurotransmitter levels.
  4. d) drugs to increase acetylcholine levels.

d. drugs to increase acetylcholine levels

39

Psychological treatments for individuals with Alzheimer's

  1. a) focus on helping the individual admit to and understand their cognitive deficiencies and limitations.
  2. b) are usually psychodynamic.
  3. c) focus on helping patients and families deal with the effects of the disease.
  4. d) can remove their memory deficits.

c. focus on helping patients and families deal with the effects of the disease

40

Compared with care giving for other disorders, care giving for people with __________ requires much more time.

  1. a) delirium
  2. b) schizophrenia
  3. c) bipolar disorder
  4. d) dementia

d. dementia

41

Which of the following predicts resiliency among caregivers?

  1. a) When the patient has more severe behavioral problems.
  2. b) When the caregiver has high levels of social support.
  3. c) When the caregiver works in mental health services.
  4. d) When the caregiver is committed to changing the behavior of the patient.

b. when the caregiver has high levels of social support

42

Delirium, but not dementia, is characterized by

  1. a) slow onset.
  2. b) cognitive confusion.
  3. c) daily fluctuations
  4. d) poor judgment.

c. daily fluctuations

43

After being released from a brief hospitalization for minor surgery, 70-year-old Mrs. Bee seemed distractible and disoriented. She did not even recognize her husband when he came to pick her up from the hospital. After they returned home, they discussed their plans for the weekend and Mrs. Bee seemed fine, but as night came on, she could not sleep and began accusing Mr. Bee of throwing away her belongings while she was away. Which of the following disorders best fits Mrs. Bee's symptoms?

  1. a) delusional (paranoid) disorder
  2. b) early dementia, probably Alzheimer's disease
  3. c) delirium
  4. d) depression

c. delirium

44

Delirium can occur only

  1. a) after age 70.
  2. b) following a stroke.
  3. c) after a significant life stressor such as loss of a spouse.
  4. d) None of the above. Delirium can occur at any time.

d. delirium can occur at any time

45

Stress following surgery is a common precipitant for the onset of

  1. a) Alzheimer's disease.
  2. b) delirium.
  3. c) Parkinson's disease.
  4. d) hydrocephalus.

b. delirium

46

If you are talking to a person with delirium, it may feel like you are talking

  1. a) to someone who has suffered amnesia.
  2. b) to a child.
  3. c) to someone who is depressed.
  4. d) to someone who is drunk.

d. someone who is drunk

47

Delirium that is not treated

  1. a) resolves itself.
  2. b) reoccurs.
  3. c) can be fatal.
  4. d) progresses into dementia.

c. can be fatal

48

Individuals with dementia are at high risk for

  1. a) delirium.
  2. b) meningitis.
  3. c) schizophrenia.
  4. d) dehydration.

a. delirium

49

Which of the following is not a reason for why rates of psychopathology are so low late in life?

  1. a) Older adults may underreport symptoms.
  2. b) Cohort effects.
  3. c) People with mental illness are at risk for early death.
  4. d) Dementia masks most other psychopathology.

d. dementia masks most other psychopathology

50

More than ________ percent of older adults with generalized anxiety disorder reported that their anxiety symptoms began before the age of 65.

  1. 25
  2. b) 50
  3. c) 70
  4. d) 95

d. 95

51

Most psychological disorders that occur in late life were initially experienced between the ages of ________ and ________.

  1. a) 18; 44
  2. b) 45; 50
  3. c) 55; 65
  4. d) 70; 80

a. 18; 44

52

Which of the following is NOT a methodological issue when studying psychological disorders in late adulthood?

  1. a) selective mortality
  2. b) response biases
  3. c) cohort effects
  4. d) lack of anonymity

d. lack of anonymity

53

Adults with diagnoses of psychological disorders are more likely to die earlier due to

  1. a) substance abuse
  2. b) cardiovascular disease
  3. c) compromised immune function
  4. d) all of the above

d. all of the above

54

Depression in older adults can be distinguished from depression in younger adults by higher levels of

  1. a) cognitive symptoms.
  2. b) suicidal ideation.
  3. c) hostility.
  4. d) agitation.

a. cognitive symptoms

55

Depression in older adults is often linked to

  1. a) medical illnesses.
  2. b) dopamine changes.
  3. c) retirement.
  4. d) social isolation.

a. medical illnesses

56

Which of the following is not an established intervention for depression in older adults?

  1. a) psychotherapy
  2. b) antidepressant medication
  3. c) St. John's Wort
  4. d) electroconvulsive therapy

c. St. John's Wort

57

The idea that some people may be able to compensate for neurocognitive diseases by using alternative brain networks or cognitive strategies such that cognitive symptoms are less pronounced is called

  1. a) cognitive reserve
  2. b) cognitive adjustment
  3. c) mental compensation
  4. d) none of the above

a. cognitive reserve

but also d. none of the above?

58

The DSM-5 criteria for Delirium include of the following criteria EXCEPT

  1. a) disturbance in attention and awareness.
  2. b) a change in cognition, not better accounted for by a dementia.
  3. c) symptoms caused by Alzheimer’s disease.
  4. d) evidence that symptoms are caused by a medical condition.

c. symptoms caused by Alzheimer's disease

59

The difference between dementia and delirium is that

  1. a) dementia has a gradual deterioration.
  2. b) delirium has a rapid onset.
  3. c) dementia is not explained by another medical condition.
  4. d) all of the above.

d. all of the above

60

One of the most common triggers of delirium is

  1. a) hip surgery.
  2. b) loneliness.
  3. c) loss of employment.
  4. d) none of the above.

a. hip surgery

61

Delirium is characterized by:

  1. anxiety
  2. memory loss
  3. frank disorganization
  4. sad mood

c. frank disorganization

62

T/F: most people develop major memory problems late in life.

False

63

T/F: sexual interest declines as people age

False

64

T/F side effects of medications are of less concern as people age because more people adjust over time.

False

65

T/F: most people become unhappier as they age.

False