Psychology Final

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1

Psychology is defined as the:

scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

2

The largest area of specialization in psychology is _____ psychology.

clinical/counseling

3

Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of psychology?

control
predict
analyze
explain

analyze

4

Whereas the philosopher _____ believed that humans possessed some innate knowledge, the philosopher _____ believed that all knowledge is derived from experience.

Plato; Aristotle

5

The formal beginning of psychology is associated with:

Wundt.

6

A procedure in which an observer describes the simple elements of a complex experience in as much detail as possible is called:

introspection.

7

T/F: Functionalism offered an alternative to structuralism in the early days of scientific psychology.

True

8

Which choice correctly pairs a pioneering woman in psychology with a "first"?

A.Mary Whiton Calkins – first woman to earn a PhD in psychology
B.Margaret Floy Washburn – first woman of color to be awarded a PhD in Psychology
C.Mamie Phipps Clark – first female president of the APA
D.Mamie Phipps Clark – first woman of color to be awarded a PhD in Psychology

Mamie Phipps Clark – first woman of color to be awarded a PhD in Psychology

9

In recent years, psychologists have identified potential differences in the brain anatomy of gay men and their straight counterparts. This finding supports the _____ perspective in psychology

biological

10

The process psychologists use to conduct research is called:

the scientific method.

11

T/F: In a scientific journal article, the abstract lists all the articles cited.

False

12

Which descriptive research technique is correctly matched with a description?

A.survey – Participants are systematically studied in their natural environment.
B.case study – A single individual or group is examined in detail.
C.naturalistic observation – Questionnaires or interviews are used to probe behavior or attitudes.
D.All of these choices are correctly matched.

case study – A single individual or group is examined in detail.

13

DeAndre is recording instances of physical aggression among children in a schoolyard at recess. DeAndre is undertaking:

naturalistic observation.

14

The correlation coefficient ranges from _____ to _____.

-1.00; 1.00

15

The _____ method uses independent and dependent variables to reveal cause-and-effect relationships.

experimental

16

The purpose of random assignment is to:

ensure that participant characteristics are equivalent across the experimental and control groups.

17

In an experiment, the _____ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher.

independent

18

In an experiment, the _____ variable is measured by the researcher.

dependent

19

A pharmaceutical company wishes to test the efficacy of a new antidepressant using a double-blind procedure. Which alternative correctly describes the procedure the company would use?

The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking.

20

As part of an assignment, Bill's class was asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire on prejudice. Which research method was Bill's professor using?

survey

21

Which statement is true regarding the use of deception in psychological research?

A.Review committees no longer permit the use of deception in psychological research.
B.No one can be forced to become a participant in psychological research.
C.Participants are informed of any deception during the informed consent process.
D.Although researchers can conceal a study's purpose, they cannot deliberately misrepresent it

No one can be forced to become a participant in psychological research.

22

Which concept is correctly matched with its definition?

A.distress – the stress response to a neutral event
B.eustress – the stress response to agreeable or pleasant events
C.stress – a stimulus that causes a physiological, psychological, or emotional reaction
D.stressor – the stress response to undesirable or unpleasant events

eustress – the stress response to agreeable or pleasant events

23

Bev receives a large tip from a customer. Ellen has experienced a(n):

uplift.

24

When a threatening situation occurs, the _____ nervous system becomes active. When the threat is over, the _____ nervous system becomes active.

sympathetic; parasympathetic

25

Which sequence correctly orders the stages of the general adaptation syndrome, from first to last?

alarm > resistance > exhaustion

26

The HPA system oversees the sympathetic nervous system's response to stress. The "H" and "P" in the acronym stand for the _____ and the _____ gland.

hypothalamus; pituitary

27

The study of the biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to health and illness is called _____ psychology.

Health

28

Stress may impair the production of disease-fighting white blood cells called:

lymphocytes.

29

NK (natural killer) cells:

prevent the spread of infection.

30

One's initial assessment of an event as challenging or stressful is called _____ appraisal. One's assessment of how to respond to the event is called _____ appraisal.

primary; secondary

31

T/F: Even a perceived threat may be sufficient to cause stress.

True

32

T/F: Nearly 15% of the soldiers returning from deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan show evidence of post-traumatic stress disorder.

True

33

T/F:People are most vulnerable to illness during the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

False; exhaustion

34

T/F: NK cells prevent the spread of infection within the body.

True

35

A(n) ______ conflict occurs when an individual considers two attractive options.

approach-approach

36

Cortisol is secreted by the

adrenal glands.

37

An increase of fatty deposits, inflammation, and scar tissue within artery walls is called

atherosclerosis.

38

The textbook notes that alcohol is frequently used to "counteract the negative feelings associated with stress." In the language of operant conditioning, alcohol use is therefore often maintained by

negative reinforcement.

39

_____ is the field that studies the relationships among psychological factors, the nervous system, and immune system functioning.

Psychoneuroimmunology

40

In a(n) _____ conflict, an individual must decide between two alternatives, each possessing both appealing and unappealing qualities.

double approach-avoidance

41

Following an ugly confrontation with a coworker, Simon seeks sympathy from his friends. Simon is practicing _____ coping.

emotion-focused

42

Data from the American Psychological Association indicates that Americans' top two sources of stress are

money and work.

43

The building blocks of the nervous system are cells called:

neurons.

44

The chemicals that relay signals across the synapses between neurons are called:

neurotransmitters.

45

A synapse is a:

gap.

46

Popular actor Michael J. Fox lives with Parkinson's disease. His symptoms include shaking and trembling, signs of a deficiency of the neurotransmitter:

dopamine

47

The brain and the spinal cord make up the the _____ nervous system.

Central

48

Bundles of neurons carrying information to and from the central nervous system are called:

nerves.

49

The tiny _____ gland may be considered the endocrine system's “master gland.”

pituitary

50

_____ plays a key role in understanding ironic or satirical language.

The right hemisphere

51

T/F: Interneurons connect sensory neurons to motor neurons.

True

52

An axon is a

long, tube-like structure extending from a neuron's cell body.

53

Electrical wires are generally protected by a tube of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by

myelin

54

The electrical potential created by the difference in charge between the inside and outside of a neuron is called the neuron's _____ potential.

Resting

55

Cocaine causes the neurotransmitter dopamine to remain at the site of the synapse longer than it normally would. Cocaine thus inhibits the process called:

reuptake.

56

T/F: Wernicke's area is in the right frontal lobe.

False

57

_____ function(s) as the brain's natural painkiller.

Endorphins

58

The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the ______ and ______ divisions.

somatic; autonomic

59

Public speaking frightens Pavel. Unfortunately, he is scheduled to give a presentation when his class begins in 5 minutes. Pavel's _____ nervous system is probably kicking into high gear.

sympathetic

60

Which neurotransmitter is also a hormone?
norepinephrine
dopamine
glutamate
serotonin

norepinephrine

61

Split-brain operations are used to treat drug-resistant

epilepsy.

62

A stroke damaged a portion of Broca's area in Joelle's brain. Joelle will probably experience deficits in

language production.

63

The process by which the brain reorganizes itself throughout development is termed

neuroplasticity.

64

The process by which receptor cells detect stimuli is called

sensation.

65

The process of converting sensory data into electrochemical signals is called:

transduction

66

In the most common form of color blindness

red and green cannot be distinguished.

67

The thin layer of receptors at the back of the eye is called the

retina

68

The absolute lowest-frequency sound humans can hear is

20 Hz

69

Individuals who believe they control their own fates display an _____ locus of control.

internal

70

The receptor cells for hearing are located in the

cochlea

71

The olfactory receptors are located in the

olfactory epithelium

72

The life span of an olfactory receptor cell can be as long as

30 Days

73

When one object is closer than a second, it partially blocks one's view of the second object, which then appears more distant than the first. This is a monocular depth cue called

interposition

74

Which touch receptor is correctly matched with its corresponding sensation?

Pacinian corpuscles – vibration
thermoreceptors – light touch
Meissner's corpuscles – pain
nociceptors – heat or cold

Pacinian corpuscles – vibration

75

According to the textbook, college students' GPAs are _____ correlated with the time they spend using social media.

negatively

76

The stimulus intensity that is detected half the time on average is called the _____ threshold.

absolute

77

Why, really, do we adapt after prolonged exposure to a constant stimulus?

so that we detect potentially important changes in what's going on

78

Visible light ranges in wavelength from approximately _____ nm to _____ nm.

400; 700

79

Approximately 65 to 75% of the eye's focusing ability comes from the:

cornea.

80

Which sequence accurately reflects the order in which light passes through the structures of the eye during vision?

cornea, pupil, lens, retina

81

Which sequence accurately reflects the order in which light stimulates cells early in the visual processing of an image?

rods and cones, then bipolar cells,then ganglion cells

82

How do trichromatic and opponent-process theories differ?

In opponent-process theory, the cells responsive to color operate in conjunction rather than independently.

83

The _____ marks the boundary between the middle ear and the inner ear.

oval window

84

T/F: According to frequency theory, the perception of low-frequency sounds reflects the frequency of neural impulses.

True

85

T/F: Roast beef with a rich brown gravy is often described as a "savory" dish. The basic taste prominent in such a dish is bitter.

False

86

A relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking due to experience is called:

learning

87

_____ is a form of learning in which an organism responds less strongly to an event following repeated exposures to it.

Habituation

88

_____ is credited for laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.

Pavlov

89

______ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that would elicit the same response naturally.

Classical conditioning

90

Julie's cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, but not when a blender is used. Julie's cat is demonstrating stimulus:

discrimination.

91

Todd was stung by a bee. Now he is frightened not only of bees but of all flying insects. This example illustrates:

stimulus generalization.

92

_____ conditioning is a type of learning in which organisms associate actions with consequences.

Operant

93

“Responses that lead to pleasurable consequences are more likely to be repeated.” This is the law of:

effect

94

Behavior is increased by:

positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.

95

T/F: Only humans appear capable of acquiring new behaviors through observational learning.

False

96

Classical conditioning involves the conditioning of the involuntary responses of the autonomic nervous system. Such responses include the elevation in heart rate associated with anxiety or fear, a response of the _____ nervous system.

sympathetic

97

In the first phase of the classical conditioning process

an unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response.

98

T/F: In the final phase of the classical conditioning process a conditioned stimulus elicits a conditioned response.

True

99

_____ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency when the CS is presented in the absence of the US.

Extinction

100

Watson and Rayner are known for their study of

Little Albert and conditioned fear.

101

The roots of operant conditioning may be traced to _____'s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.

Thorndike

102

T/F: The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that the preceding behavior will be repeated is called shaping.

False

103

The removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a target behavior is called _____ reinforcement.

negative

104

Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _____ reinforcers.

primary

105

A _____ schedule of reinforcement is one in which reinforcement is provided after a pre-established number of responses.

fixed-ratio

106

The sudden awareness of a problem's solution is called:

insight.

107

_____ psychologists investigate human cognition, emotion, and behavior in relation to other people.

Social

108

In a social psychological experiment, Aaliyah is secretly working for the experimenters by acting as a bystander. Aaliyah is a(n):

confederate.

109

T/F: Social Cognition is the branch of social psychology that investigates how people process social information and how they think about other people.

True

110

The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own, is called:

attribution

111

The fundamental attribution error involves:

underestimating the situational influences on another person's behavior.

112

We expect the people we meet to be more or less the same as we are. Social psychologists call this the:

false consensus effect.

113

_____ occurs when behavior changes at the request of a person or group with no real authority.

Compliance

114

When people change their behavior in response to a direct command by an authority figure, they are demonstrating:

obedience

115

_____ occurs when people perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.

Social facilitation

116

The motivation to help others with no expectation of a return is called:

altruism

117

T/F: In social psychological experiments an individual who secretly works for the experimenters is called a stooge.

False

118

If students do well on a test, they say, "I got an A!" If they do poorly, they say, "The professor gave me an F." This BEST illustrates the:

self-serving bias.

119

Stable thoughts, feelings, and responses toward objects, people, situations, or ideas are called

attitudes

120

When people's attitudes clash with their behavior, they experience a state of psychological tension called

cognitive dissonance.

121

_____ refers to intentional efforts to change people's attitudes or behaviors.

Persuasion

122

Are fear-producing messages effective?

Yes, if they suggest a way that the audience can reduce the fear.

123

When people change their behavior in response to a direct command by an authority figure, they are demonstrating

obedience

124

The local basketball team consistently performs better in front of the home crowd on their home court. This BEST illustrates

social facilitation.

125

Some people lose self-awareness and self-restraint during a large sporting event or mob action. This is known as

deindividuation.

126

______ refer(s) to the inferences people make about other people based upon their group memberships.

Stereotypes

127

Viewing the world only from the perspective of one's own group is called

ethnocentrism

128

Brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects. Brett might be diagnosed with:

specific phobia.

129

An individual with a fear of public speaking, going to parties, or eating out MOST likely suffers from _____ disorder.

social anxiety

130

People who suffer from _____ disorder are so preoccupied by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions that they are unable to function in their daily lives.

obsessive-compulsive

131

In obsessive-compulsive disorder, compulsions relieve or offset troubling obsessions. Thus, compulsions are therefore maintained through:

negative reinforcement.

132

Feeling worthless, sleep problems, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite are symptoms of:

major depressive disorder.

133

Worldwide, approximately _____ of adults have thought seriously about suicide.

10%

134

People with schizophrenia demonstrate a severe and chronic loss of contact with reality called:

psychosis

135

People with _____ disorders display rigid, unusual behavior patterns that impair functioning.

personality

136

Paulette cannot recall long stretches of her difficult childhood; Paulette's case is an example of dissociative:

amnesia

137

Dissociative _____ is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personalities.

identity disorder.

138

Dramatic mood swings are characteristic of a condition known as _____ disorder.

bipolar

139

A _____ disorder is a set of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that are significantly distressing and disabling.

psychological

140

Which is NOT one of the "three Ds" of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook?

disability

141

Insanity is a _____ term.

legal

142

The primary purpose of the DSM-5 is to provide:

descriptions of disorders.

143

The term _____ refers to the causes of psychological disorders.

etiology

144

The _____ perspective is the most integrative approach to psychological disorders.

biopsychosocial

145

______ disorders are characterized by extreme apprehension and debilitating fears.

Anxiety

146

T/F: Symptoms that can be incorrectly perceived as those of a heart attack are MOST characteristic obsessive-compulsive disorder.

False

147

T/F: Unless a friend accompanies her, Anne is overwhelmed when she goes shopping or uses the city bus. Anne is agoraphobic.

True

148

Which of the following sequences BEST reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?

encoding, storage, retrieval

149

Amelia remarks that she needs to learn the text's section on the structures of the brain for an upcoming test. Brian responds that he couldn't remember the function of the hippocampus on a test the preceding day. Amelia is making reference to the memory process called _____. Brian is referring to the memory process called _____.

encoding; retrieval

150

When one uses the term "remembering" in day-to-day life, one is making reference to the memory process of:

retrieval

151

Almost everybody has had the feeling of knowing the answer to a question, but not being quite able to say it. This is called the "tip-of-the-tongue" phenomenon, and is a failure of:

retrieval

152

Based on the textbook's discussion, memory competitors appear to differ from other people mainly in their:

memory strategies.

153

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the information processing model of memory?

sensory memory > short-term memory > long-term memory

154

Which sequence correctly arranges the information-processing stages of memory in order of increasing capacity?

short-term memory > sensory memory > long-term memory

155

In the information-processing model of memory, _____ memory can be described as "high capacity, long duration."

long-term

156

According to the levels of processing framework, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests?

Grant, who attempts to memorize his notes
Grant and Irene should retrieve information equally well on tests.
Irene, who attempts to relate her notes to information she has learned in other classes
The levels of processing framework makes no prediction in this situation.

Irene, who attempts to relate her notes to information she has learned in other classes

157

Research reviewed in the textbook suggests that practice tests:

increase memory for material.

158

Psychologists use the term _____ memory to refer to photographic visual impressions that last less than a second.

eidetic

159

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, psychologist George Sperling conducted important studies of _____ memory.

sensory

160

The duration of short-term memory is about:

20 to 30 seconds.

161

In the words of George Miller, the capacity of short-term memory is the "magical number _____."

7, plus or minus 2

162

Grouping pieces of information together to expand the capacity of short-term memory is called:

chunking

163

Angel is considering how best to run several errands between his last class in the afternoon and the beginning of his shift at work 2 hours later. In his mind's eye, he sees a mental map of the town. This map helps Angel factor distances, traffic, and so on into his plans. This map is in his working memory component called the:

visuospatial sketchpad.

164

The central executive is a component of _____ memory.

working

165

In working memory, visual and verbal information is integrated in the:

episodic buffer.

166

_____ devices are methods for improving memory.

Mnemonic

167

Spacing study sessions over long periods of time with breaks in between is called:

distributed practice.