Essentials of Sociology: Sociology Final Flashcards

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created 8 years ago by Bailie_Shockley
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Essentials of Sociology
Chapters 1-4, 6-8, 10-12, 15, 16
updated 8 years ago by Bailie_Shockley
sociology, social science
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In the midst of an economic crisis, when foreclosures have become a common feature in the country in response, Jenna and her family lose their home because her parents can no longer pay the mortgage. Jenna would be using a sociological imagination to think about this if she were to:

consider how it might be strange that we live in a world that allows people to be thrown out of their homes


_ refers to how human societies are reconstructed at every moment by the very 'building blocks' that compose them - human beings



Camilo wants to see wether people in France react the same way to authority as people in the United States do. He will likely develop what kind of research question?

Comparative question


Florence is interested in researching how men's lives have changed as women have increasingly entered the work force. What question will she be formulating?

Developmental Question


Hunches about the nature of the problem can sometimes be turned into definite _ or educated guesses about what is going on



Jennifer wants to collect rich and varied data about the lives of Native Americans who live on reservations. She wants to be able to not only document their lived reality but also to describe it as closely as possible as they experience their lives. The best method of research for this study would be:



Doug notices in his sample studies that marijuana users are much more likely to report using heroin than people who not use marijuana. He concludes that marijuana must be a gate way drug - drug that leads to the use of harder substances. What's wrong with Doug's conclusion?

His sample data do not demonstrate causality; an experimental approach would be better for investigating such a claim


Alejandra studied the lives of women in the 1968 rebellion in Paris, France by looking over a wide range of documents available from that period. Her research would best be described as :

Historical Analysis


Laud Humphrey's studies on tearooms show that sociologists

sometimes use deception in their research


Sangeeta agrees that African Americans often see themselves through the eyes of white society. Her ideas most closely match with those of which theorist?

WEB Du Bois


We might identify one of the latent functions of public schools as:

training kids to obey authority and grow up to become obedient workers


Karl Marx thought society was:

primarily divided by social class


Marissa rejects the idea that we can make historical claims about society progressively developing. Her idea most mirrors which theoretical perspective?



Mohammad believes that studies of human behavior should focus primarily on how we construct meaning together through abstract representations. His position is closest to which theoretical perspective?

Symbolic Interactionism


Caste systems require that individuals marry within their social group. This is referred to as



According to Karl Marx, because workers produce more than is actually needed to pay them, the relationship between workers and capitalists in an industrial society is



According to the textbook, Jewish people have been considered a _ throughout most of European history

Pariah Group


The money a person gets from a wage or salary from investments is _ the assets an individual owns are _

income; wealth


An economy based on computer and information technology has had what effect on social stratification in recent years?

It has increased the importance and value of a college education in the job market


People in the blue collar occupations such as plumbers and hotel workers make up the

working class


In the US class system the poorest of the poor who are structurally disadvantaged and are least likely to move out of their class position, are called the



In which of the following countries is the poverty rate highest?

United States


How does the government determine the poverty line?

It multiplies the cost of an adequate, nutritious diet by 3


What is meant by the phrase feminization of poverty?

The fact that a majority of the poor are women


The income of the most elderly people is dependent on:

Social Security


One of the most distressing signs of the growing stratification in the US is the growth in the number of:

Homeless People


_ refers to the psychologist, social, and cultural differences between men and women



People begin to treat children in specific ways because of their gender:

from the moment they are born


What is an example of 'doing gender'?

Choosing to wear a dress


How can the increase in female labor force participation over the past 50 years be explained?

Many women now postpone family formation to complete their education and establish themselves in the labor force


John is an elementary school teacher who is encouraged by management to apply for the vacant principal position at his school. Even though there are equally qualified or more qualified female teachers, he is told he will get excellent recommendations. In this example, John is likely

riding the glass escalator


The making of unwanted sexual advances by one individual toward another, in which the first person persists even though it is clear that the other party is resistant is called

sexual harassment


Because of differential treatment in schools, girls are socialized to be



female politicians are more likely to be

involved in local politics rather than national politics


The term that describes cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that have emerged historically and tend to set people apart is



Joan believes that most drug dealers are black. She continues to hold this belief even though she read in the newspaper that more whites sell drugs than blacks. Joan's attitude is an example of



Blaming immigrants for high unemployment rates is an example of



According to the textbook which of the following statements concerning Western colonialism is NOT TRUE

South Asia, east Asia, the South Pacific, and the Middle East, were unaffected by Western Colonies


Which of the following statements concerning segregation is NOT TRUE?

Interracial marriage had always been legal in most northern states


More 99% people in the US are descended from



Which is now the largest minority group in the US?

Hispanic Americans


Which group was forcibly removed to relocation centers in WWII?

Japanese Americans


Some people advocate for political forms of decision making in which everyone votes on decisions that affect them. This kind of political system can best be described as?

A participatory democracy


US military spending today

is greater than that of the next 15 countries combined


What do Edna Bonacich and Richard Appelbaum mean when they write about a global 'race to the bottom' in the retail dominated production of clothing?

Retailers and manufactures will go anywhere on Earth to pay the lowest possible wages, which results in dismal wages for workers - who are often mere children


According to the textbook, why did labor unions form?

To redress the imbalance of power between workers and employers


According to the textbook, which of the following statements may help explain why so many people decide not to vote in the US?

Voters may sometimes feel that they lack effective choices due to the domination of only two political parties


According to the textbook, which of the following statements is true about political actoin committees (PACs)?

They provide about a third of the funding for congressional elections


Miriam is a sociologist who has a great faith in the US political system. She subscribes to the theory that continual processes of bargaining among numerous groups representing different interests influence the government policies in democracy. Miriam ideas could best be described as



Which theory best explains why a neighborhood that had only minor problems, such as abandoned cars and graffiti, began to see an increase in other more serious types of property crime?

Broken Window theory


Nadia lives in a country with a royal family that receives money from taxpayers to live in a palace and carry out certain ceremonial functions, but the king and queen have no real political power. Instead, a Parliament of elected officials makes all the important political decisions. What kind of political system does Nadia live in?

A constitutional monarchy


President Dwight David Eisenhower, who had been supreme commander of the Allied Forces in Europe in WWII warned in his presidential farewell address:

of the dangers of what he termed the 'military industrial complex'


Which of the following factors would sociologists consider LEAST related to high rates violent crime?

insufficient number of prisons


Those who study the functions of deviance would probably NOT refer to which example as a function that deviance preforms?

Noncriminals learn from experienced criminals ow to commit crime


The National Crime Victimization survey has found that crime rates are :

Actually higher than those reported by official agencies


Sybil lives in a country where she cannot always participate as fully as others. For example, only men can run for election to the local government council. Sybil actively protests this restriction. What kind of right is sybil fighting for?

Political Right


In 1908 who designed his first auto plant at Highland Park, Michigan, to manufacturer only one product, thereby allowing the introduction of specialized tools and machinery designed for speed, precision, and simplicity of operation?

Henry Ford


Jennifer works in a factory that manufacturers microwave ovens. During her 8 hour shift, she tightens four screws on each unit that passes on an assembly line belt. She preforms this task on more than 1500 microwave ovens per day. Her work is an example of whose innovation in industry?

Henry Ford


Which of the following is NOT an example of corporate crime?

An organized crime group engages in sex trafficking


Molly in a Keynesian economist, which means that she subscribes to the ideas of John Maynard Keynes. She recently began working as an economic adviser to the president. Just when she started her new job, the country spiraled into economic recession. What would Molly probably recommend the president do to fight the recession?

Invest in public infrastructure to create jobs


Which of the following disciplines tends to NOT place the source of deviant behavior exclusively within an individual?



Miles has been working on an assembly line in a US car manufacturing factory for the past 30 years. Which of the following trends is he most likely to have witnessed?

Many of the activities that were formerly carried out in the plant have been outsourced to other countries


According to the textbook, violent crimes is more common

in the US than Switzerland


According to the textbook, which of the following statements best describes old style terrorism?

its point is to establish states in areas where nations do not have control of the territory's state apparatus


Max spends most of his time in the house taking care of his children and his sister's children. He cooks for them, takes them to school, and keeps an eye on them when they get out of school in the afternoon and in the summertime. In exchange for this help, his sister lends his family an extra apartment she has in her multi family home. What is the term that sociologists use to refer to this kind of transaction?

Informal economy


Donald thinks that religions are best studied as being in competition with one another for followers. Sociologists call this view

religious economy


_ is one of the best examples for demonstrating both the unity and the diversity of human culture, because there are no cultures without it



Suzanna has two biological sons that she raised from birth. Her sons are members of her

Family of procreation


The term that describes connections between individuals established either through marriage or through the lines of descent that connected blood relatives is



Why might sociologists be opposed to tracking in schools?

Studies have found generally found that tracking reinforces previously existing inequalities for average or poor students


According to the textbook, why was education so rapidly expanded with the development of capitalism in the opinion of Marxist sociologist?

Employers needed certain personality characteristics in their workers - self discipline, dependability, punctuality, obedience, and the like - there all taught in schools


The practice of tracking students can be described as

diving students into groups that receive different instruction on the basis of assumed similarities in ability or attainment


Functionalists argue that social roles

are in a constant state of change


Pablo studies clothing choices in sub cultural groups. He is investigating

material culture


_ refers to abstract ideals in a given society



Which of the following is a factor in explaining why divorce rates increased so steeply in the 1960s and 1970s

changes in the law made getting a divorce easier


For most individuals in modern society, the agent of socialization that is most responsible for their early childhood development is

the family


Peer groups can best be defined as social groups in which members

are of similar age and social background


Indeet's family has a pot of incense that they use to give gifts of scent to their dead ancestors in rituals. It is seen as a special object, apart from everyday life, for a ritual that is to be treated with special respect. Emile Durkheim would refer to this object as



When Jorge was young, he liked to paint his toenails pink with his sister. On the first day of school he started kindergarten, the other kids laughed at him and told him that he was acting like a girl with his toenails painted pink. Once he got home he took the nail polish off so that the kids would no longer make fun of him. According to George Herbert Mead's theory of socialization, Jorge now saw himself through the eyes of others and realized that boys are not supposed to wear pink nail polish. In other words, Jorge developed

a social consciousness


Why are sociologists often critical of the idea of universal education as a great equalizer that creates a freer and equal society?

Contemporary schools often carry within them a hidden curriculum that produces social inequality


All social science theories of child socialization emphasize

the importance of human contact


Which general perspective has been most concerned with the domestic division of labor, unequal power relationships, and caring activities in the family?



_ are widely agreed upon principles or rules people are expected to observe; they represent the dos and don'ts of social life



the process by which children become self aware, knowledgeable people and skilled in the ways of the culture into which they are born is known as



Until the first few decades of the 19th century, most of the world's population had no schooling whatsoever. According to the textbook; why did universal education develop?

As the industrial economy rapidly expanded, there was a great demand for specialized schooling that could produce an educated, capable workforce


According to functionalists, the husband, in the conventional family is the breadwinner and plays the __ role; the wife cares for the home and children and plays the __ role

instrumental; affective


According to the textbook, gender differences are the result of

social influences


Why was Karl Marx critical of religion

Marx believed that religion defers happiness and rewards to the afterlife and teaches the resigned acceptance of existing conditions in the earthly life


Luis believes that it is the responsibility of Christians and the Catholic Church to be activists and advocates of the poor. This idea is

Liberation theology


Sapphire studies differences between nations and largely Islamic and those that are largely Christian. She takes great care in her research to examine the differences she finds neutrally and without value judgments. Sapphire's position is called

Cultural relativism


Which of the following statements related to the feminist approach to the family is true?

women invest large amounts of emotional labor in maintaining personal relationships


The process of self-conciseness in which we create and recreate who we are, is known as

the 'me'


Societies whose substance derives from the rearing of domesticated animals are called __ societies



Betty Friedan is an icon in the second American women's movement. In her widely read book, The Feminine Mystique, she refers to 'the problem with no name'. What is the problem with no name?

the isolation and boredom that gripped many suburban American women


About what percent of American adults 65 and older are or have been previously married?



During the 1970's and 1980's feminist perspectives dominated most debates and research on families. According to the textbook, on what did they largely focus?

the experiences of women in the domestic sphere


Johann is from the United Kingdom. In his cross cultural studies, he sees that women in Afghanistan, are often forced to wear head scarves, but women in the United Kingdom are not. He concludes, then, that women in Afghanistan would be freer if their culture were more like that of the United Kingdom. How might sociologists likely critique Johann's position?

Johann would be better served as a social scientist if he avoided those kinds of value judgments.


The study of everyday behavior in situations of face to face interaction is usually called



Jerome looks at how the global economy functions in continental free-trade zones. His studies might be described as



Wesley conducts research that involves meeting with subjects in a controlled setting. He treats some subjects kindly but behaves rudely to others. He notes how different groups react to his behavior to make inferences about how people react to kindness and rudeness in certain situations. His research would best be described as

experimental research


Sangeeta argues that African Americans often see themselves through the eyes of white society. Her ideas most closely match with those of which theorist



The ideas of Karl Marx might be criticized for what reason?

his focus on class conflict risked minimizing or ignoring other social divisions, such as those around race and gender


Marissa rejects the idea that we can make historical claims about society progressively developing. Her idea mirror most which theoretical perspective?



Anita puts forward the idea that under capitalism, working people and the owners of the means of production will struggle, from this struggle, a new kind of society will emerge. Her thoughts most closely mirror which theorist?

Karl Marx


Adherents of __ contend that there are no loner and 'grand narratives' or metanarratives - overall conceptions of history or society - that make any sense

symbolic interactionism


AS a sociology theory, __ is unique in that it is also supposed to generate a program for a radical political change



According to the textbook __ was the first to turn a sociological eye on previously ignored issues, such as marriage, children, domestic and religious life, and race relations

harriet martineau


Kevon believes that society should be looked at like a body, with constituent parts necessary to the functioning of the whole. His ideas probably most closely mirror those of which theorist?

Emile Durkheim


According to __ to become a science, sociology must study social facts - aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals

Emile Durkhiem


Pierre prefers to think of insitutions and human activities by analyzing the relationship of each individual part as it relates to the whole. His way of thinking most closely resembles which theoretical perspective?



According to Pierre Bourdieu, working-class parents are just as interested in theri children's education as middle and upper class parents, but they lack the __ to help their children experience social mobility

cultural capital


According to the textbook, which phenomenon erased many of the gains in child well-being made in the past twenty years

the 2008 economic recession


Male dominance in a society is usually referred to as



Which statement among the following concerning violence is false?

female infanticide is no longer practiced - even in the least developed world


What strategy would liberal feminists encourage?

family friendly policies in the workplace


Members of which Latino immigrant work are more likely to be educated and come from white collar and professional backgrounds



In American Apartheid (1993) Douglas Massey and Nancy A Denton argue that __ is/are responsible for the perpetuation of black poverty and the continued polarization of black and white people

history of racial segregation


According to the textbook, the combined sales of what kind of corporations accounted for over half of the value of goods and services produced by the entire state of 2007?



From the perspective of labeling theory, deviance is seen as

a process of interaction between deviants and non-deviants


Which of the following statements is true, according to C Wright Mills in The Power Elite

those who are in the highest position, the economy, and the military come from similar social backgrounds, have parallel interests, and often know one another personally


Eduardo lives in Montevideo, Uruguay. Recently he has seen the pay that he receives for his work as a hotel clerk reduced significantly because of legislation that reduced the minimum wage for workers. Eduardo and his colleagues have taken to the street to protest against this law. What kind of right are they fighting for?

social right


Which of the following statements concerning white-collar crime is NOT true?

the amount of money involved in crimes against property (robberies, burglaries, larceny, forgeries, and car thefts) is forty times times greater than the amount involved in white-collar crimes


Which of the following statements does not represent the sociological perspective on deviance?

crime is a personal choice that is not shaped by social context


Rick is a sociologist who specializes in the study of labor issues. Which of teh following explanations would he probably be LEAST likely cite to explain the difficulties faced by labor unions since 1980?

increased globalization has strengthened workers' bargaining power


T OR F: Professor Kohler argued that neoliberal globalization is the main cause of job loss since the 1970's. Accordingly, 'anti-globalization' policies like those of President Trump are a good bet to bring jobs back to American



T OR F: In the film, Inside Job, the filmmakers argue that excessive regulation of Wall Street nearly brought financial ruin to America



T OR F: In the film, Inside Job, the filmmakers make it clear that Democratic and Republican administrations have very different priorities when it comes to regulating Wall Street



T OR F: Professor Kohler argued that elections in America, and by implication US laws and policies tend to be driven by those at the extremes on the left and right. Accordingly, moderate American's voices in the 'middle' are largely ignored



T OR F: In the film, inside job, the filmmakers make it clear that one of the most successful practices for deterring corporate crime has been severe fines for illegal corporate activities



T OR F:The Citizens United vs FEC decision of the Supreme Court upheld the right of Congress to limit political campaign contributions by entries like corporations and unions



T OR F: The concept of 'cosmic warfare' suggests that modern terrorists are open to negotiation in a way that 'old terrorists' terrorists do not



T OR F: in the film, Inside Job, the filmmakers describe instances of US banks involved in laundering money for drug cartels and Iranian nuclear weapon programs



T OR F: In the clip "Misrepresentation" the filmmakers said that at 7 years old an equal number of boys and girls want to be president



Professor Kohler said that the United States government through Federal Housing Authority (FHA) handbooks taught Americans how to construct racially restrictive covenants



T OR F: The best predictor of whether or not a murderer will get the death penalty or life in prison is the occupation of the victim



T OR F: The police killings of Sean Bell and Amadou Diallo were justified according to the court records because each were found with firearms on their persons



T OR F: in the clip 'Misrepresentation' the filmmakers argued that are negatively portrayed in the media as a result of the behaviors of a 'few bad apples' who make all women look bad