Campbell Biology: 1407 Test 3 Final Flashcards


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1

2) Most of the neurons in the human brain are
A) sensory neurons.
B) motor neurons.
C) interneurons.
D) auditory neurons.
E) peripheral neurons.

Answer: C

2

5) The somatic nervous system can alter the activities of its targets, the skeletal muscle fibers, because
A) it is electrically coupled by gap junctions to the muscles.
B) its signals bind to receptor proteins on the muscles.
C) its signals reach the muscles via the blood.
D) its light pulses activate contraction in the muscles.
E) it is connected to the internal neural network of the muscles.

Answer: B

3

7) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals are released by
A) the dendritic membrane.
B) the presynaptic membrane.
C) axon hillocks.
D) cell bodies.
E) ducts on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer: B

4

8) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals are received by
A) the dendritic membrane.
B) the presynaptic membrane.
C) axon hillocks.
D) cell bodies.
E) ducts on the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer: A

5

12) The operation of the sodium-potassium "pump" moves
A) sodium and potassium ions into the cell.
B) sodium and potassium ions out of the cell.
C) sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out of the cell.
D) sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.
E) sodium and potassium ions into the mitochondria.

Answer: D

6

23) Action potentials move along axons
A) more slowly in axons of large than in small diameter.
B) by the direct action of acetylcholine on the axonal membrane.
C) by activating the sodium-potassium "pump" at each point along the axonal membrane.
D) more rapidly in myelinated than in non-myelinated axons.
E) by reversing the concentration gradients for sodium and potassium ions.

Answer: D

7

33) Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals via
A) osmosis.
B) active transport.
C) diffusion.
D) transcytosis.
E) exocytosis.

Answer: E

8

40) The following steps refer to various stages in transmission at a chemical synapse.

1. Neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane.
2. Calcium ions rush into neuron's cytoplasm.
3. An action potential depolarizes the membrane of the axon terminal.
4. The ligand-gated ion channels open.
5. The synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.

Which sequence of events is correct?

A) 1 → 2 → 3 → 4 → 5
B) 2 → 3 → 5 → 4 → 1
C) 3 → 2 → 5 → 1 → 4
D) 4 → 3 → 1 → 2 → 5
E) 5 → 1 → 2 → 4 → 3

Answer: C

9

58) The botulinum toxin reduces the synaptic release of
A) acetylcholine.
B) epinephrine.
C) endorphin.
D) nitric oxide.
E) GABA.

Answer: A

10

41) The activity of acetylcholine in a synapse is terminated by
A) its active transport across the presynaptic membrane.
B) its diffusion across the presynaptic membrane.
C) its active transport across the postsynaptic membrane.
D) its diffusion across the postsynaptic membrane.
E) its degradation by a hydrolytic enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane.

Answer: E

11

50) Receptors for neurotransmitters are of primary functional importance in assuring one-way synaptic transmission because they are mostly found on the
A) axonal membrane.
B) axon hillock.
C) dendritic membrane.
D) mitochondrial membrane.
E) presynaptic membrane.

Answer: C

12

4) An organism that lacks integration centers
A) cannot receive stimuli.
B) will not have a nervous system.
C) will not be able to interpret stimuli.
D) can be expected to lack myelinated neurons.

Answer: C

13

9) The human knee-jerk reflex requires an intact
A) spinal cord.
B) hypothalamus.
C) corpus callosum.
D) cerebellum.
E) medulla.

Answer: A

14

10) The blood-brain barrier
A) is formed by tight junctions.
B) is formed by oligodendrocytes.
C) tightly regulates the intracellular environment of the CNS.
D) uses chemical signals to communicate with the spinal cord.
E) provides support to the brain tissue.

Answer: A

15

8) The cerebrospinal fluid is
A) a filtrate of the blood.
B) a secretion of glial cells.
C) a secretion of interneurons.
D) cytosol secreted from ependymal cells.
E) secreted by the hypothalamus.

Answer: A

16

11) Myelinated neurons are especially abundant in the
A) gray matter of the brain and the white matter of the spinal cord.
B) white matter of the brain and the gray matter of the spinal cord.
C) gray matter of the brain and the gray matter of the spinal cord.
D) white matter in the brain and the white matter in the spinal cord.
E) all areas of the brain and spinal cord.

Answer: D

17

14) The divisions of the nervous system that have antagonistic, or opposing, actions are
A) motor and sensory systems.
B) sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
C) presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes.
D) forebrain and hindbrain.
E) central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

Answer: B

18

15) Preparation for the fight-or-flight response includes activation of the ________ nervous system.
A) sympathetic
B) somatic
C) central
D) visceral
E) parasympathetic

Answer: A

19

18) The activation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is associated with
A) resting and digesting.
B) release of epinephrine into the blood.
C) increased metabolic rate.
D) fight-or-flight responses.
E) intensive aerobic exercise.

Answer: A

20

26) Bottlenose dolphins breathe air but can sleep in the ocean because
A) they cease breathing while sleeping and remain underwater.
B) they sleep for only 30 minutes at a time, which is the maximum interval they can cease breathing.
C) they fill their swim bladder with air to keep their blowholes above the surface of the water while they sleep.
D) they move to shallow water to sleep, so they do not need to swim to keep their blowholes above the surface of the water.
E) they alternate which half of their brains is asleep and which half is awake

Answer: E

21

23) Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are human activities associated with increased activity in the
A) pituitary gland.
B) hypothalamus.
C) cerebrum.
D) cerebellum.
E) spinal cord.

Answer: C

22

33) The coordination of groups of skeletal muscles is driven by activity in the
A) cerebrum.
B) cerebellum.
C) thalamus.
D) hypothalamus.
E) medulla oblongata.

Answer: B

23

brainstem

controls breathing and heartrate

24

31) Which of the following structures are correctly paired?
A) forebrain and medulla oblongata
B) forebrain and cerebellum
C) midbrain and cerebrum
D) hindbrain and cerebellum
E) brainstem and anterior pituitary gland

Answer: D

25

41) Wernicke's and Broca's regions of the brain affect
A) olfaction.
B) vision.
C) speech.
D) memory.
E) hearing.

Answer: C

26

42) Which of the following shows a brain structure correctly paired with one of its primary functions?
A) frontal lobedecision making
B) occipital lobecontrol of skeletal muscles
C) temporal lobevisual processing
D) cerebellumlanguage comprehension
E) occipital lobespeech production

Answer: A

27

46) Wernicke's area
A) is active when speech is heard and comprehended.
B) is active during the generation of speech.
C) coordinates the response to olfactory sensation.
D) is active when you are reading silently.
E) is found on the left side of the brain.

Answer: A

28

48) Short-term memory information processing usually causes changes in the
A) brainstem.
B) medulla.
C) hypothalamus.
D) hippocampus.
E) cranial nerves.

Answer: D

29

45) Our understanding of mental illness has been most advanced by discoveries involving
A) the degree of convolutions in the brain's surface.
B) the evolution of the telencephalon.
C) the sequence of developmental specialization.
D) the chemicals involved in brain communications.
E) the nature of the blood-brain barrier.

Answer: D

30

59) When Phineas Gage had a metal rod driven into his frontal lobe, or when someone had a frontal lobotomy, they would
A) lose the ability to reason.
B) lose all short-term memory.
C) have greatly altered emotional responses.
D) lose all long-term memory.
E) lose their sense of balance.

Answer: C

31

52) Bipolar disorder differs from schizophrenia in that
A) schizophrenia results in hallucinations.
B) schizophrenia results in both manic and depressive states.
C) schizophrenia results in decreased dopamine.
D) bipolar disorder involves both genes and environment.
E) bipolar disorder increases biogenic amines.

Answer: A

32

Bipolar disorder is similar to schizophrenia in that researchers suspect that both include trouble with the neurotransmitter
A) dopamine.
B) acetylcholine.
C) norepinephrine.
D) nitric oxide.
E) ethanol.

Answer: A

33

most drug addictions

effect dopamine pathways

34

After suffering a stroke, a patient can see objects anywhere in front of him but pays attention only to objects in his right field of vision. When asked to describe these objects, he has difficulty judging their size and distance. What part of the brain was likely damaged by the stroke?
A) the left frontal lobe
B) the right frontal lobe
C) the left parietal lobe
D) the right parietal lobe
E) the corpus callosum

Answer: D

35

Injury localized to the hypothalamus would most likely disrupt
A) short-term memory.
B) coordination during locomotion.
C) executive functions, such as decision making.
D) sorting of sensory information.
E) regulation of body temperature.

Answer: E

36

Patients with damage to Wernicke's area have difficulty
A) coordinating limb movement.
B) generating speech.
C) recognizing faces.
D) understanding language.
E) experiencing emotion.

Answer: D

37

Which of the following structures or regions is incorrectly paired with its function?
A) limbic systemmotor control of speech
B) medulla oblongatahomeostatic control
C) cerebellumcoordination of movement and balance
D) corpus callosumcommunication between the left and right cerebral cortices
E) amygdalaemotional memory

Answer: A

38

Although an exact count is not available, it is likely that the human brain has as many as
A) 10,000 neurons.
B) 500,000 neurons.
C) 1 million neurons.
D) 10 million neurons.
E) 100 billion neurons.

Answer: E

39

Cephalization, the clustering of neurons and interneurons in the anterior part of the animal, is apparent in
A) Hydra.
B) cnidarians.
C) Planaria.
D) sea stars.
E) invertebrate animals with radial symmetry.

Answer: C

40

In the human knee-jerk reflex, as the calf is raised from the vertical toward the horizontal, the muscles of the quadriceps (flexors on the ventral side of the thighs) and the muscles of the hamstring (extensors on the dorsal side of the thighs) are
A) both excited and contracting.
B) both inhibited and relaxed.
C) excited and inhibited, respectively.
D) inhibited and excited, respectively.

Answer: C

41

The stretch receptors of the sensory neurons in the human knee-jerk reflex are located in the
A) gastrocnemius muscle, in the calf.
B) cartilage of the knee.
C) quadriceps, the flexor muscles on the ventral side of the thighs.
D) hamstring, the extensor muscles on the dorsal side of the thighs.
E) brain, the sensorimotor relay.

Answer: C

42

Cerebrospinal fluid can be described as all of the following except
A) functioning in transport of nutrients and hormones through the brain.
B) a product of the filtration of blood in the brain.
C) formed from layers of connective tissue.
D) functioning to cushion the brain.
E) filling cavities in the brain called ventricles.

Answer: C

43

16) Exercise and emergency reactions include
A) increased activity in all parts of the peripheral nervous system.
B) increased activity in the sympathetic, and decreased activity in the parasympathetic branches.
C) decreased activity in the sympathetic, and increased activity in the parasympathetic branches.
D) increased activity in the enteric nervous system.
E) reduced heart rate and blood pressure.

Answer: B

44

25) The endogenous nature of biological rhythms is based on the observations that animals isolated from light and dark cues
A) continue to have cycles of exactly 24 hours' duration.
B) continue to have cycles of approximately 24 hours' duration; some more rapid, some slower.
C) synchronize activity with whatever lighting cycle is imposed on them.
D) cease having any rhythms.
E) are independent of any genetic determinants.

Answer: B

45

27) The limbic system in the central nervous system sustains many vegetative functions in mammals and is closely associated with structures that process cues about
A) gustation.
B) olfaction.
C) vision.
D) audition.
E) mechanosensation.

Answer: B

46

29) Increases and decreases of the heart rate result from changes in the activity of the
A) corpus callosum.
B) medulla oblongata.
C) thalamus.
D) pituitary.
E) cerebellum.

Answer: B

47

30) The unconscious control of respiration and circulation are associated with the
A) thalamus.
B) cerebellum.
C) medulla oblongata.
D) corpus callosum.
E) cerebrum.

Answer: C

48

32) Hormones that are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are made in the
A) cerebrum.
B) cerebellum.
C) thalamus.
D) hypothalamus.
E) medulla oblongata.

Answer: D

49

58) Imagine you are resting comfortably on a sofa after dinner. This could be described as a state with
A) increased activity in the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems.
B) decreased activity in the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems.
C) decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and increased activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems.
D) increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and decreased activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems.
E) increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, decreased activity in the parasympathetic nervous system, and increased activity in the enteric nervous system.

Answer: C

50

22) The "threshold" potential of a membrane
A) is the point of separation from a living to a dead neuron.
B) is the lowest frequency of action potentials a neuron can produce.
C) is the minimum hyperpolarization needed to prevent the occurrence of action potentials.
D) is the minimum depolarization needed to operate the voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels.
E) is the peak amount of depolarization seen in an action potential.

Answer: D

51

21) A "resting" motor neuron is expected to
A) release lots of acetylcholine.
B) have high permeability to sodium ions.
C) be equally permeable to sodium and potassium ions.
D) exhibit a resting potential that is more negative than the "threshold" potential.
E) have a higher concentration of sodium ions on the inside of the cell than on the outside.

Answer: D

52

28) An action potential can start in the middle of an axon and proceed in both opposite directions when
A) the neuron is an inhibitory neuron and operating normally.
B) only the middle section of the axon has been artificially stimulated by an electrode.
C) the dendritic region fires an action potential.
D) it is in its typical refractory state.
E) its membrane potential is above the threshold.

Answer: B

53

32) The surface on a neuron that discharges the contents of synaptic vesicles is the
A) dendrite.
B) axon hillock.
C) node of Ranvier.
D) postsynaptic membrane.
E) presynaptic membrane.

Answer: E

54

34) The fastest possible conduction velocity of action potentials is observed in
A) thin, non-myelinated neurons.
B) thin, myelinated neurons.
C) thick, non-myelinated neurons.
D) thick, myelinated neurons.

Answer: D