A&P Final part 2

Helpfulness: +4
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by chipotleoak
1,622 views
updated 6 weeks ago by chipotleoak
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

If you find an error

let me know by leaving a comment, so I can fix it! Good Luck!!

2

If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________.

A) it would be much longer before cardiac cells could respond to a second stimulation

B) contractions would last as long as the refractory period

C) tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

D) it would be less than 1-2 ms

C) tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

3

During contraction of heart muscle cells ________.

A) the action potential is initiated by voltage-gated slow calcium channels

B) some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores

C) the action potential is prevented from spreading from cell to cell by gap junctions

D) calcium is prevented from entering cardiac fibers that have been stimulated

B) some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores

4

Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________.

A) trabeculae carneae
B) pectinate muscles
C) papillary muscles
D) venae cavae

C) papillary muscles

5

Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block.

A) SA node
B) AV valves
C) AV bundle
D) AV node

D) AV node

6

Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart wall.

A) The fibrous skeleton forms the bulk of the heart.

B) Connective tissue in the heart wall aids in the conduction of the action potential.

C) The heart chambers are lined by the endomysium.

D) The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.

D) The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.

7

Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.

A) The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.

B) Each cardiac muscle cell is innervated by a sympathetic nerve ending so that the nervous system can increase heart rate.

C) The refractory period in skeletal muscle is much longer than that in cardiac muscle.

D) The influx of potassium ions from extracellular sources is the initiating event in cardiac muscle contraction.

A) The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.

8

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.

A) has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

B) lacks striations

C) has more nuclei per cell

D) cells are larger than skeletal muscle cells

A) has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

9

Which of the following is not an age-related change affecting the heart?

A) atherosclerosis
B) decline in cardiac reserve
C) fibrosis of cardiac muscle
D) thinning of the valve flaps

D) thinning of the valve flaps

10

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.

A) accommodate a greater volume of blood

B) expand the thoracic cage during diastole

C) pump blood with greater pressure

D) pump blood through a smaller valve

C) pump blood with greater pressure

11

The tricuspid valve is closed ________.

A) while the ventricle is in diastole
B) when the ventricle is in systole
C) while the atrium is contracting
D) by the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle

B) when the ventricle is in systole

12

The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.

A) ischemia
B) pericarditis
C) myocardial infarct
D) angina pectoris

D) angina pectoris

13

Select the correct statement about the heart valves.

A) The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.

B) The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.

C) Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow of blood into the heart.

D) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.

D) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.

14

If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.

A) decreased delivery of oxygen
B) a decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production
C) a lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways
D) an inadequate supply of lactic acid

A) decreased delivery of oxygen

15

The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.

A) ventricular repolarization
B) ventricular depolarization
C) atrial repolarization
D) atrial depolarization

D) atrial depolarization

16

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi

B) the vast array of digestive enzymes

C) Brunner's glands

D) the rugae

A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi

17

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A) tongue
B) esophagus
C) nasal cavity
D) salivary glands

A) tongue

18

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) chief cells of the stomach
B) parietal cells of the duodenum
C) Brunner's glands
D) goblet cells of the small intestine

A) chief cells of the stomach

19

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
A) absorption
B) secretion
C) chemical digestion
D) mechanical digestion

C) chemical digestion

20

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
A) liver
B) spleen
C) pancreas
D) stomach

A) liver

21

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

22

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

B) is the first site where absorption takes place

C) is the only place where fats are completely digested

D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

23

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

A) chief cells
B) parietal cells
C) serous cells
D) mucous neck cells

B) parietal cells

24

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
A) B12
B) K
C) A
D) C

A) B12

25

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
A) muscularis mucosae
B) serosa
C) adventitia
D) lamina propria

D) lamina propria

26

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
A) mesenteries
B) lamina propria
C) serosal lining
D) mucosal lining

A) mesenteries

27

Peristaltic waves are ________.
A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

28

________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.

A) Distension
B) Carbohydrates
C) Peptides
D) Low acidity

B) Carbohydrates

29

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
A) ACh
B) secretin
C) gastrin
D) histamine

B) secretin

30

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

31

Which of the following is not true of saliva?
A) cleanses the mouth
B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

32

Triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
A) rennin
B) pepsin
C) lipase
D) cholecystokinin

C) lipase

33

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion

D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

34

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

A) dextrinase
B) amylase
C) trypsin
D) lipase

C) trypsin

35

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

A) produce gas

B) absorb bilirubin

C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

D) synthesize vitamins C and D

C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

36

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

A) digestion
B) absorption
C) ingestion
D) secretion

A) digestion

37

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients

C) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time

D) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

38

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
A) duodenum
B) ileum
C) jejunum
D) pyloric sphincter

B) ileum

39

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) proteins
D) starches

A) lipids

40

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

A) parietal cells
B) zymogenic cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) enteroendocrine cells

A) parietal cells

41

Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.

B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

42

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen

B) in the walls of the tract organs

C) in the pons and medulla

D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage

B) in the walls of the tract organs

43

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) bile
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
D) gastric juice

A) bile

44

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
A) mucosa
B) submucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) serosa

B) submucosa

45

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

A) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells

B) parietal cells and glial cells

C) serous cells and mucous cells

D) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

C) serous cells and mucous cells

46

Chyme is created in the ________.
A) mouth
B) stomach
C) esophagus
D) small intestine

B) stomach

47

The lamina propria is composed of ________.
A) loose connective tissue
B) dense irregular connective tissue
C) dense regular connective tissue
D) reticular connective tissue

A) loose connective tissue

48

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
A) gastrin
B) secretin
C) cholecystokinin CCK
D) gastric inhibitor peptide

C) cholecystokinin CCK

49

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
A) gastrin
B) amylase
C) cholecystokinin
D) trypsin

B) amylase

50
card image

Using Figure 23.3, match the following:

17) Produces enzymes that break down all categories of foodstuffs.

18) Increases surface area for absorption via villi and microvilli.

19) Bacteria process undigested chyme from the small intestine.

20) Only digestive structure with three muscle layers.

21) Receives blood via the hepatic portal system.

22) Contains the brush border enzymes that complete digestion of carbohydrates and proteins.

17) D
18) B
19) E
20) c
21) A
22) B

51

Match the following:
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

13) Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.

14) Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.

15) Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.

16) Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.

13. A

14. C

15. D

16. B

52
card image

Using Figure 23.1, match the following:

1) Mucosa.

2) Smooth muscle layer.

3) Serosa.

1) A
2) C
3) D

53
card image

Using Figure 23.2, match the following:

8) Absorptive cells that line the intestinal tract.

9) Structures that increase the absorptive area of the small intestine.

10) Wide lymph capillary located in the villus.

8) B

9) A

10) C

54

Which of the following determines lung compliance?

A) airway opening
B) flexibility of the thoracic cage
C) muscles of inspiration
D) alveolar surface tension

D) alveolar surface tension

55

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere
B) obstruction of the esophagus
C) taking several rapid deep breaths
D) getting very cold

A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere

56

Select the correct statement about the pharynx.

A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.

B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.

D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

57

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
A) as a passageway for air movement
B) as the initiator of the cough reflex
C) warming and humidifying the air
D) cleansing the air

B) as the initiator of the cough reflex

58

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.

59

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
A) secrete surfactant
B) trap dust and other debris
C) replace mucus in the alveoli
D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

A) secrete surfactant

60

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

A) pressure within the pleural cavity

B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

C) negative pressure in the intrapleural space

D) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

61

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
A) osmosis
B) diffusion
C) filtration
D) active transport

B) diffusion

62

41) Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
A) alveolar sacs
B) alveoli
C) respiratory bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts

B) alveoli

63

Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

A) pulmonary ventilation
B) blood pH adjustment
C) internal respiration
D) external respiration

B) blood pH adjustment

64

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
A) solubility in water
B) partial pressure gradient
C) the temperature
D) molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

B) partial pressure gradient

65

Tidal volume is air ________.
A) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

B) exchanged during normal breathing

C) inhaled after normal inspiration

D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration

B) exchanged during normal breathing

66

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
A) surface tension of water
B) surfactant
C) cartilage rings
D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

C) cartilage rings

67

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
A) loss of oxygen in tissues
B) increase of carbon dioxide
C) pH (acidosis)
D) pH (alkalosis)

B) increase of carbon dioxide

68

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

A) tidal volume

B) vital capacity

C) inspiratory capacity

D) expiratory reserve volume

B) vital capacity

69

Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
A) midbrain and medulla
B) medulla and pons
C) pons and midbrain
D) upper spinal cord and medulla

B) medulla and pons

70

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
A) reserve air
B) expiratory reserve
C) inspiratory reserve
D) vital capacity

C) inspiratory reserve

71

Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.

A) the ventral respiratory group

B) the chemoreceptor center

C) Broca's center

D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

A) the ventral respiratory group

72

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.
A) thickness of vestibular folds
B) length of the vocal folds
C) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

73

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
A) Henry's law
B) Boyle's law
C) Dalton's law
D) Charles' law

C) Dalton's law

74

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
A) at least 3 micrometers thick
B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
C) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick
D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.

B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

75

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?

A) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.

B) Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.

C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

D) CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.

C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

76

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?

A) allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction

B) helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers

C) helps limit the spread of local infections

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

77

The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.
A) Boyle's law
B) Henry's law
C) Charles' law
D) Dalton's law

A) Boyle's law

78

Which of the choices below is not a functional process performed by the respiratory system?

A) pulmonary ventilation
B) transport of respiratory gases
C) external respiration
D) pulmonary respiration

B) transport of respiratory gases

79

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

A) rising carbon dioxide levels
B) rising blood pressure
C) arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
D) arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention

B) rising blood pressure

80
card image

6) Tidal volume.

7) Inspiratory reserve volume.

8) Residual volume.

9) Expiratory reserve volume.

10) Air that does not participate in the exchange of gases.

6) b

7) a

8) d

9) c

10) d

81
card image

Using Figure 22.1, match the following:
1) Main (primary) bronchus.

2) Pharynx.

3) Larynx.

4) Carina of trachea.

5) Trachea.

1) d

2) a

3) b

4) e

5) c

82

A) Respiratory bronchioles
B) Type I cells
C) Segmental bronchi
D) Alveolar duct

11) No exchange of gases occurs here.

12) Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins.

13) Composed of simple squamous epithelium.

14) Terminates in alveoli.

15) The respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ________.

11) c
12) a
13) b
14) d
15) b

83

Match the following:

A) Epicardium
B) Parietal layer
C) Myocardium
D) Endocardium

14) The inner lining of the heart.

15) Heart muscle.

16) Serous layer covering the heart muscle.

17) The outermost layer of the serous pericardium.

14) A

15) C

16) D

17) B

84

Match the following:

A) Purkinje fibers
B) AV bundle
C) SA node
D) AV node

18) The pacemaker of the heart.

19) Found in the interventricular septum.

20) The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed.

21) damage to it is a heart block

18) C

19) B

20) D

21) D

85

A) Aortic valve
B) Tricuspid valve

22) Prevents backflow into the left ventricle.

23) Prevents backflow into the right atrium.

22) A
23) B

86
card image

match the following:

1) Purkinje fibers.

2) SA node.

3) AV bundle.

4) AV node.

5) Bundle branches.

1. Answer: E

2. Answer: A

3. Answer: C

4. Answer: B

5. Answer: D

87
card image

match the following:

6) Atrial depolarization.

7) Point after which pressure begins to rise in the aorta.

8) Ventricular repolarization.

9) Point that represents the "dup" sound made by the heart.

6. Answer: A

7. Answer: D

8. Answer: E

9. Answer: E

88
card image

match the following:

1) Sinusoid capillary.

2) Capillary found in endocrine organs that allows hormones to gain rapid entry into the blood.

3) Capillary with intercellular clefts found in the skin and muscles.

4) Capillary that may contain Kupffer cells in the lining.

5) Capillary found where active capillary absorption of filtrate occurs.

1) C

2) B

3) A

4) C

5) B

89
card image

1) Glomerulus.

2) Afferent arteriole.

3) Collecting duct.

4) Loop of Henle.

5) Peritubular capillaries.

6) Structure most closely associated with granular cells.

7) Medulla of the kidney.

1. Answer: C

2. Answer: A

3. Answer: B

4. Answer: E

5. Answer: D

6. Answer: A

7. Answer: E

90

Match the following:

A) Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs.
B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
C) Site of filtrate formation.
D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

17) Proximal convoluted tubule.

18) Glomerulus.

19) Peritubular capillaries.

20) Collecting duct.

Answers:
17) A

18) C

19) B

20) D

91
card image

1) Monocyte.

2) Lymphocyte.

3) Eosinophil.

4) Neutrophil.

5) Most common white blood cell found in whole blood.

6) Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies.

7) Kills parasitic worms.

8) Becomes a macrophage.

9) Main bacteria killer during acute infections.

1) Answer: B

2) Answer: D

3) Answer: C

4) Answer: A

5) Answer: A

6) Answer: D

7) Answer: C

8) Answer: B

9) Answer: A

92

Match the following:
A) Leukemia
B) Anemia
C) Embolism

1) Cancerous condition involving white blood cells

2) Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.

3) Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream

1) a
2) b
3) c

93

The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.

A) coronary sinus
B) fossa ovalis
C) coronary arteries
D) coronary veins

C) coronary arteries